CS代写 Gibbs sampling – cscodehelp代写

Gibbs sampling
A rather different approach to sampling.
Part of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) family of algorithms. Don’t generate each sample from scratch.
Generate samples by making a random change to the previous sample.
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London 2

Gibbs sampling
Gibbs sampling for Bayesian networks starts with an arbitrary state.
So pick state with evidence variables fixed at observed values.
(If we know Cloudy “ true, we pick that.)
Generate next state by randomly sampling from a non-evidence variable.
Do this sampling conditional on the current values of the Markov blanket.
“The algorithm therefore wanders randomly around the state space . . . flipping one variable at a time, but keeping the evidence variables fixed”.
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London 3

Gibbs sampling
Consider the query:
PpCloudy|Sprinker “ true, W etGrass “ trueq The evidence variables are fixed to their observed values.
The non-evidence variables are initialised randomly.
State is thus:
Cloudy “ true Rain “ false
rCloudy “ true, Sprinkler “ true, Rain “ f alse, W etGrass “ trues.
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London

Gibbs sampling
First we sample Cloudy given the current state of its Markov blanket.
Markov blanket is Sprinkler and Rain. So, sample from:
PpCloudy|Sprinkler “ true, Rain “ falseq Suppose we get Cloudy “ false, then new state is:
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London
rCloudy “ false, Sprinkler “ true, Rain “ f alse, W etGrass “ trues.

Gibbs sampling
Next we sample Rain given the current state of its Markov blanket.
Markov blanket is Cloudy, Sprinkler and WetGrass. So, sample from:
PpRain|Cloudy “ false,Sprinkler “ true,WetGrass “ falseq Suppose we get Rain “ true, then new state is:
rCloudy “ false, Sprinkler “ true, Rain “ true, W etGrass “ trues.
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London

Gibbs sampling
Each state visited during this process contributes to our estimate for:
PpCloudy|Sprinkler “ true, W etGrass “ trueq
Say the process visits 80 states. In 20, Cloudy “ true
In 60, Cloudy “ false
PpCloudy|Sprinkler “ true, W etGrass “ trueq “ α ̋ 60
‚“ ̋

⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London
̈ ̨ ̈ ̨
0.25 0.75

Gibbs sampling
function GIBBS-ASK(X, e, bn, N) returns an estimate of P pX |eq local variables: NrX s, a vector of counts over X, initially zero
Z, the nonevidence variables in bn
x, the current state of the network, initially copied
from e
initialize x with random values for the variables in Z for j = 1 to N do
foreachZi inZdo
samplethevalueofZi inxfromPpZi|mbpZiqq
given the values of MBpZiq in x
Nrx s Ð Nrx s ` 1 where x is the value of X in x
return NORMALIZE(NrX s)
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London 8

Gibbs sampling
All of this begs the question:
“How do we sample a variable given the state of its Markov blanket?” For a value x of a variable X:
PpX|mbpXqq “ αPpX|parentspXqq where mbpXq is the Markov blanket of X.

Y PChildrenpXq
PpY |parentspY qq
Given PpX|mbpXqq, we can sample from it just as we have before.
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London 9

To summarise
Bayesian networks exploit conditional independence to create a more compact set of information.
Reasonably efficient computation for some problems. Five approaches to inference in Bayesian networks.
‚ Exact: Inference by enumeration.
‚ Approximate: Prior sampling
‚ Approximate: Rejection sampling
‚ Approximate: Importance sampling/likelihood weighting ‚ Approximate: Gibbs sampling
Can answer a simple query for any BN.
⃝c -Trenn, King’s College London 10

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