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LATEX Tutorials

A PRIMER

Indian TEX Users Group

Trivandrum, India 2003 September

LATEX TUTORIALS — A PRIMER

Indian TEX Users Group EDITOR: E. Krishnan

COVER: G. S. Krishna

Copyright ⃝c 2002, 2003 Indian TEX Users Group Floor III, SJP Buildings, Cotton Hills

Trivandrum 695014, India http://www.tug.org.in

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, version 1.2, with no invariant sections, no front-cover texts, and no back-cover texts. A copy of the license is included in the end.

This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

Published by the Indian TEX Users Group

Online versions of this tutorials are available at:

http://www.tug.org.in/tutorials.html

PREFACE

For us who wrote the following pages, TEX is something beautiful and also useful. We enjoy TEX, sharing the delights of newly discovered secrets amongst ourselves and won- dering ever a new at the infinite variety of the program and the ingenuity of its creator. We also lend a helping hand to the new initiates to this art. Then we thought of extend- ing this help to a wider group and The Net being the new medium, we started an online tutorial. This was well received and now the Free Software Foundation has decided to publish these lessons as a book. It is a fitting gesture that the organization which upholds the rights of the user to study and modify a software publish a book on one of the earliest programs which allows this right.

Dear reader, read the book, enjoy it and if possible, try to add to it.

The TUGIndia Tutorial Team

3

The ideal situation occurs when the things that we regard as beau- tiful are also regarded by other people as useful.

— Donald Knuth

4

CONTENTS

I. The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

I.1 WhatisLATEX?–7• I.2 Simpletypesetting–8• I.3 Fonts–13• I.4 Typesize–15 II.TheDocument ……………………………. 17

II.1 Document class – 17 • II.2 Page style – 18 • II.3 Page numbering – 19 • II.4 Formatting lengths – 20 • II.5 Parts of a document – 20 • II.6 Dividing the document – 21 • II.7 What next? – 23

III.Bibliography …………………………….. 27

III.1 Introduction – 27 • III.2 natbib – 28

IV.BibliographicDatabases ……………………….. 33

IV.1 The BIBTEX program – 33 • IV.2 BIBTEX style files – 33 • IV.3 Creating a bibliographic database – 34

V. Table of contents, Index and Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

V.1 Table of contents – 39 • V.2 Index – 41 • V.3 Glossary – 44

VI.DisplayedText ……………………………. 47

VI.1 Borrowed words – 47 • VI.2 Poetry in typesetting – 48 • VI.3 Making lists – 48 • VI.4 When order matters – 51 • VI.5 Descriptions and definitions – 54

VII. Rows and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

VII.1 Keeping tabs – 57 • VII.2 Tables – 62

VIII. Typesetting Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

VIII.1 The basics – 77 • VIII.2 Custom commands – 81 • VIII.3 More on mathematics – 82 • VIII.4 Mathematics miscellany – 89 • VIII.5 New operators – 101 • VIII.6 The many faces of mathematics – 102 • VIII.7 And that is not all! – 103 • VIII.8 Symbols – 103

IX.TypesettingTheorems ………………………… 109

IX.1 Theorems in LATEX – 109 • IX.2 Designer theorems—The amsthm package – 111 • IX.3 Housekeeping – 118

X.SeveralKindsofBoxes………………………… 119

X.1 LR boxes – 119 • X.2 Paragraph boxes – 121 • X.3 Paragraph boxes with specific height – 122 • X.4 Nested boxes – 123 • X.5 Rule boxes – 123

XI.Floats ………………………………… 125

XI.1 The figure environment – 125 • XI.2 The table environment – 130 5

6 CONTENTS

XII.CrossReferencesinLATEX ………………………. 135

XII.1 Why cross references? – 135 • XII.2 Let LATEX do it – 135 • XII.3 Pointing to a page—the package varioref – 138 • XII.4 Pointing outside—the package xr – 140 • XII.5 Lost the keys? Use lablst.tex – 140

XIII.Footnotes,Marginpars,andEndnotes…………………. 143

XIII.1 Footnotes – 143 • XIII.2 Marginal notes – 147 • XIII.3 Endnotes – 148

TUTORIAL I

THE BASICS

I.1. WHAT IS LATEX?

The short and simple answer is that LATEX is a typesetting program and is an extension of the original program TEX written by Donald Knuth. But then what is a typesetting program?

To answer this, let us look at the various stages in the preparation of a document using computers.

1. The text is entered into the computer.

2. The input text is formatted into lines, paragraphs and pages.

3. The output text is displayed on the computer screen.

4. The final output is printed.

In most word processors all these operations are integrated into a single application

package. But a typesetting program like TEX is concerned only with the second stage above. So to typeset a document using TEX, we type the text of the document and the necessary formatting commands in a text editor (such as Emacs in GNU/Linux) and then compile it. After that the document can be viewed using a previewer or printed using a printer driver.

TEX is also a programming language, so that by learning this language, people can write code for additional features. In fact LATEX itself is such a (large) collection of extra features. And the collective effort is continuing, with more and more people writing extra packages.

I.1.1. A small example

Let us see LATEX in action by typesetting a short (really short) document. Start your

favorite text editor and type in the lines below exactly as shown

documentclass{article}

egin{document}

This is my emph{first} document prepared in LaTeX.

end{document}

Be especially careful with the character (called the backslash) and note that this is different from the more familiar / (the slash) in and/or and save the file onto the hard disk as myfile.tex. (Instead of myfile you can use any name you wish, but be sure to have .tex at the end as the extension.) The process of compiling this and viewing the output depends on your operating system. We describe below the process of doing this in GNU/Linux.

7

8

I. THE BASICS

At the shell prompt type

latex myfile

You will see a number of lines of text scroll by in the screen and then you get the prompt back. To view the output in screen, you must have the X Window running. So, start X if you have not done so, and in a terminal window, type

xdvi myfile

A window comes up showing the output below

This is my first document prepared in LATEX.

Now let us take a closer look at the source file (that is, the file you have typed). The first line documentclass{article} tells LATEX that what we want to produce is an article. If you want to write a book, this must be changed to documentclass{book}. The whole document we want to typeset should be included between egin{document} and end{document}. In our example, this is just one line. Now compare this line in the source and the output. The first three words are produced as typed. Then emph{first}, becomes first in the output (as you have probably noticed, it is a common practice to emphasize words in print using italic letters). Thus emph is a command to LATEX to typeset the text within the braces in italic1. Again, the next three words come out without any change in the output. Finally, the input LaTeX comes out in the output as LATEX.

Thus our source is a mixture of text to be typeset and a couple of LATEX commands emph and LaTeX. The first command changes the input text in a certain way and the second one generates new text. Now call up the file again and add one more sentence given below.

This is my emph{first} document prepared in LaTeX. I typed it

on oday.

What do you get in the output? What new text does the command oday generate? I.1.2. WhyLATEX?

So, why all this trouble? Why not simply use a word processor? The answer lies in the motivation behind TEX. Donald Knuth says that his aim in creating TEX is to beautifully typeset technical documents especially those containing a lot of Mathematics. It is very difficult (sometimes even impossible) to produce complex mathematical formulas using a word processor. Again, even for ordinary text, if you want your document to look really beautiful then LATEX is the natural choice.

I.2. SIMPLE TYPESETTING

We have seen that to typeset something in LATEX, we type in the text to be typeset together with some LATEX commands. Words must be separated by spaces (does not matter how many) and lines maybe broken arbitrarily.

The end of a paragraph is specified by a blank line in the input. In other words, whenever you want to start a new paragraph, just leave a blank line and proceed. For example, the first two paragraphs above were produced by the input

1This is not really true. For the real story of the command, see the section on fonts.

I.2. SIMPLE TYPESETTING 9

We have seen that to typeset something in LaTeX, we type in the

text to be typeset together with some LaTeX commands.

Words must be separated by spaces (does not matter how many)

and lines maybe broken arbitrarily.

The end of a paragraph is specified by a emph{blank line}

in the input. In other words, whenever you want to start a new

paragraph, just leave a blank line and proceed.

Note that the first line of each paragraph starts with an indentation from the left margin of the text. If you do not want this indentation, just type

oindent at the start of each paragraph for example, in the above input,

oindent We have seen … and

oindent The end of … (come on, try it!) There is an easier way to suppress para- graph indentation for all paragraphs of the document in one go, but such tricks can wait.

I.2.1. Spaces

You might have noticed that even though the length of the lines of text we type in a paragraph are different, in the output, all lines are of equal length, aligned perfectly on the right and left. TEX does this by adjusting the space between the words.

In traditional typesetting, a little extra space is added to periods which end sentences and TEX also follows this custom. But how does TEX know whether a period ends a sentence or not? It assumes that every period not following an upper case letter ends a sentence. But this does not always work, for there are instances where a sentence does end in an upper case letter. For example, consider the following

The right input to produce this is

Carrots are good for your eyes, since they contain Vitamin A@. Have

you ever seen a rabbit wearing glasses?

Note the use of the command @ before the period to produce the extra space after the period. (Remove this from the input and see the difference in the output.)

On the other hand, there are instances where a period following a lowercase letter does not end a sentence. For example

To produce this (without extra space after etc.) the input should be

The numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. are called natural numbers. According to

Kronecker, they were made by God;all else being the works of Man.

Here, we use the command (that is, a backslash and a space—here and elsewhere, we sometimes use to denote a space in the input, especially when we draw attention to the space).

There are other situations where the command (which always produce a space in the output) is useful. For example, type the following line and compile it.

I think LaTeX is fun.

Carrots are good for your eyes, since they contain Vitamin A. Have you ever seen a rabbit wearing glasses?

The numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. are called natural numbers. According to Kronecker, they were made by God; all else being the work of Man.

10 I. THE BASICS

You get

I think LATEXis fun.

What happened to the space you typed between LaTeX and is? You see, TEX gobbles up all spaces after a command. To get the required sequence in the output, change the input as

I think LaTeX is fun. Again,thecommand comestotherescue.

I.2.2. Quotes

Have you noticed that in typesetting, opening quotes are different from closing quotes?

Look at the TEX output below

Note the difference in right and left quotes in ‘single quotes’ and “double quotes”.

This is produced by the input

Note the difference in right and left quotes in ‘single quotes’

and ‘double quotes’’.

Modern computer keyboards have a key to type the symbol ` which produces a left quote in TEX. (In our simulated inputs, we show this symbol as ‘.) Also, the key ’ (the usual ‘typewriter’ quote key, which also doubles as the apostrophe key) produces a left quote in TEX. Double quotes are produced by typing the corresponding single quote twice. The ‘usual’ double quote key ” can also be used to produce a closing double quote in TEX.

If your keyboard does not have a left quote key, you can use lq command to produce it. The corresponding command

q produces a right quote. Thus the output above can also be produced by

Note the difference in right and left quotes in lq single

quotes

q and lqlq double quotes

q

q.

(Whythecommand afterthefirst

q?) I.2.3. Dashes

In text, dashes are used for various purposes and they are distinguished in typesetting by their lengths; thus short dashes are used for hyphens, slightly longer dashes are used to indicate number ranges and still longer dashes used for parenthetical comments. Look at the following TEX output

X-rays are discussed in pages 221–225 of Volume 3—the volume on electromagnetic waves. This is produced from the input

X-rays are discussed in pages 221–225 of Volume 3—the volume on

electromagnetic waves.

Note that a single dash character in the input – produces a hyphen in the output, two dashes — produces a longer dash (–) in the output and three dashes — produce the longest dash (—) in the output.

I.2.4. Accents

I.2. SIMPLE TYPESETTING 11

Sometimes, especially when typing foreign words in English, we need to put different types of accents over the letters. The table below shows the accents available in LATEX. Each column shows some of the accents and the inputs to generate them.

The letters i and j need special treatment with regard to accents, since they should not have their customary dots when accented. The commands i and j produce dot-less i andjasıandj. Thustoget

E ́lesta ́ aqu ́ı

you must type

’{E}l est’{a} aqu’{i}

Some symbols from non-English languages are also available in LATEX, as shown in the table below:

I.2.5. Special symbols

WehaveseethattheinputLaTeXproducesLATEXintheoutputand producesaspace. Thus TEX uses the symbol for a special purpose—to indicate the program that what follows is not text to be typeset but an instruction to be carried out. So what if you want to get in your output (improbable as it may be)? The command extbackslash produces in the output.

Thus is a symbol which has a special meaning for TEX and cannot be produced by direct input. As another example of such a special symbol, see what is obtained from the input below

Maybe I have now learnt about 1% of LaTeX.

You only get

Maybe I have now learnt about 1

What happened to the rest of the line? You see, TEX uses the per cent symbol % as the comment character; that is a symbol which tells TEX to consider the text following as ‘comments’ and not as text to be typeset. This is especially useful for a TEX programmer to explain a particularly sticky bit of code to others (and perhaps to himself). Even for ordinary users, this comes in handy, to keep a ‘to do’ list within the document itself for example.

But then, how do you get a percent sign in the output? Just type \% as in

o` ‘o o ̄ =o

o ̆ uo o ̄ o

o ́ ’o o ̇ .o

oˇ vo oo oo

oˆ ˆo o ̈ ”o

o ̋ Ho

o ̃ ̃o c ̧ cc

o. do

œ oe aa

ø o ß ss

¡ !‘

Œ OE AA

Ø O ¿ ?‘

æ ae ł l

Æ AE Ł L

12 I. THE BASICS

Maybe I have now learnt about 1\% of LaTeX.

The symbols and % are just two of the ten charcaters TEX reserves for its internal

use. The complete list is

̃#$%ˆ&_{}

We have seen how TEX uses two of these symbols (or is it four? Did not we use { } in one of our examples?) The use of others we will see as we proceed.

Also, we have noted that is produced in the output by the command extbackslash and % is produced by \%. What about the other symbols? The table below gives the inputs to produce these symbols.

You can see that except for three, all special symbols are produced by preceding them

with a . Of the exceptional three, we have seen that ̃ and ˆ are used for producing

accents. So what does \ do? It is used to break lines. For example, This is the first line.\ This is the second line

produces

We can also give an optional argument to \ to increase the vertical distance between the lines. For example,

This is the first line.\[10pt]

This is the second line

gives

Now there is an extra 10 points of space between the lines (1 point is about 1/72nd of an inch).

I.2.6. Text positioning

We have seen that TEX aligns text in its own way, regardless of the way text is formatted

in the input file. Now suppose you want to typeset something like this

̃ extasciitilde # #

$ $

% \%

ˆ extasciicircum

& & \_

extbackslash { {

} }

This is the first line. This is the second line

This is the first line. This is the second line

The TEXnical Institute

Certificate

This is to certify that Mr. N. O. Vice has undergone a course at this institute and is qualified to be a TEXnician.

The Director The TEXnical Institute

This is produced by

I.3. FONTS 13

egin{center}

The TeX nical Institute\[.75cm]

Certificate

end{center}

oindent This is to certify that Mr. N. O. Vice has undergone a

course at this institute and is qualified to be a TeX nician.

egin{flushright}

The Director\

The TeX nical Institute

end{flushright}

Here, the commands

egin{center} … end{center}

typesets the text between them exactly at the center of the page and the commands

egin{flushright} … end{flushright}

typesets text flush with the right margin. The corresponding commands

egin{flushleft} … end{flushleft}

places the enclosed text flush with the left margin. (Change the flushright to flushleft and see what happens to the output.)

These examples are an illustration of a LATEX construct called an environment, which is of the form

egin{name} … end{name}

where name is the name of the environment. We have seen an example of an environment at the very beginning of this chapter (though not identified as such), namely the document environment.

I.3. FONTS

The actual letters and symbols (collectively called type) that LATEX (or any other typeset- ting system) produces are characterized by their style and size. For example, in this book emphasized text is given in italic style and the example inputs are given in typewriter

style. We can also produce smaller and bigger type. A set of types of a particular style and size is called a font.

I.3.1. Type style

In LATEX, a type style is specified by family, series and shape. They are shown in the table I.1.

Any type style in the output is a combination of these three characteristics. For exam- ple, by default we get roman family, medium series, upright shape type style in a LATEX output. The extit command produces roman family, medium series, italic shape type. Again, the command extbf produces roman family, boldface series, upright shape type.

We can combine these commands to produce a wide variety of type styles. For exam- ple, the input

extsf{ extbf{sans serif family, boldface series, upright shape}}

extrm{ extsl{roman family, medium series, slanted shape}}

14 I. THE BASICS

Table I.1:

STYLE

COMMAND

roman

sans serif

typewriter

extrm{roman}

extsf{sans serif}

exttt{typewriter}

medium

boldface

upright

italic

slanted

SMALL CAP

extmd{medium}

extbf{boldface}

extup{upright}

extit{italic}

extsl{slanted}

extsc{small cap}

produces the output shown below:

Some of these type styles may not be available in your computer. In that case, LATEX gives a warning message on compilation and substitutes another available type style which it thinks is a close approximation to what you had requested.

We can now tell the whole story of the emph command. We have seen that it usually, that is when we are in the middle of normal (upright) text, it produces italic shape. But if the current type shape is slanted or italic, then it switches to upright shape. Also, it uses the family and series of the current font. Thus

extit{A polygon of three sides is called a emph{triangle} and a

polygon of four sides is called a emph{quadrilateral}}

gives

A polygon of three sides is called a triangle and a polygon of four sides is called a quadrilateral while the input

extbf{A polygon of three sides is called a

emph{triangle} and a polygon of four sides is called a

emph{quadrilateral}}

produces

A polygon of three sides is called a triangle and a polygon of four sides is called a quadrilateral

Each of these type style changing commands has an alternate form as a declaration. For example, instead of extbf{boldface} you can also type {fseries boldface} to get boldface. Note that that not only the name of the command, but its usage also is different. For example, to typeset

sans serif family, boldface series, upright shape

roman family, medium series, slanted shape

SHAPE SERIES FAMILY

I.4. TYPE SIZE 15

By a triangle, we mean a polygon of three sides. if you type

By a fseries{triangle}, we mean a polygon of three sides.

you will end up with

By a triangle, we mean a polygon of three sides.

Thus to make the declaration act upon a specific piece of text (and no more), the decla-

ration and the text should be enclosed in braces.

The table below completes the one given earlier, by giving also the declarations to

produce type style changes.

STYLE

upright

italic

slanted

SMALL CAP

COMMAND

extup{upright}

extit{italic}

extsl{slanted}

extsc{small cap}

DECLARATION

{upshape upright}

{itshape italic}

{slshape slanted}

{scshape small cap}

medium

boldface

extmd{medium}

extbf{boldface}

{mdseries medium}

{fseries boldface}

roman

sans serif

typewriter

extrm{roman}

extsf{sans serif}

exttt{typewriter}

{

mfamily roman}

{sffamily sans serif}

{ tfamily typewriter}

These declaration names can also be used as environment names. Thus to type- set a long passage in, say, sans serif, just enclose the passage within the commands egin{sffmily} … end{sffamily}.

I.4. TYPE SIZE

Traditionally, type size is measured in (printer) points. The default type that TEX pro- duces is of 10 pt size. There are some declarations (ten, to be precise) provided in LATEX for changing the type size. They are given in the following table:

Note that the

ormalsize corresponds to the size we get by default and the sizes form an ordered sequence with iny producing the smallest and Huge producing the largest. Unlike the style changing commands, there are no command-with-one-argument forms for these declarations.

We can combine style changes with size changes. For example, the “certificate” we typed earlier can now be ‘improved’ as follows

egin{center}

{fserieshuge The TeX nical Institute}\[1cm]

{scshapeLARGE Certificate}

size size

size size

size

{ iny size}

{scriptsize size}

{footnotesize size}

{small size}

{

ormalsize size}

size size

size size

size

{large size}

{Large size}

{LARGE size}

{huge size}

{Huge size}

FAMILY SERIES SHAPE

16 I. THE BASICS

end{center}

oindent This is to certify that Mr. N. O. Vice has undergone a

course at this institute and is qualified to be a TeX nical Expert.

egin{flushright}

{sffamily The Director\

The TeX nical Institute}

end{flushright}

and this produces

The TEXnical Institute

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. N. O. Vice has undergone a course at this institute and is qualified to be a TEXnical Expert.

The Director The TEXnical Institute

TUTORIAL II

THE DOCUMENT

II.1. DOCUMENT CLASS

We now describe how an entire document with chapters and sections and other embellish- ments can be produced with LATEX. We have seen that all LATEX files should begin by spec- ifying the kind of document to be produced, using the command documentclass{… }. We’ve also noted that for a short article (which can actually turn out to be quite long!) we write documentclass{article} and for books, we write documentclass{book}. There are other document classes available in LATEX such as report and letter. All of them share some common features and there are features specific to each.

In addition to specifying the type of document (which we must do, since LATEX has no default document class), we can also specify some options which modify the default format.Thus the actual syntax of the documentclass command is

documentclass[options]{class}

Note that options are given in square brackets and not braces. (This is often the case with LATEX commands—options are specified within square brackets, after which mandatory arguments are given within braces.)

II.1.1. Font size

We can select the size of the font for the normal text in the entire document with one of

the options

10pt 11pt 12pt

Thus we can say

documentclass[11pt]{article}

to set the normal text in our document in 11 pt size. The default is 10pt and so this is the

size we get, if we do not specify any font-size option.

II.1.2. Paper size

We know that LATEX has its own method of breaking lines to make paragraphs. It also has methods to make vertical breaks to produce different pages of output. For these breaks to work properly, it must know the width and height of the paper used. The various options for selecting the paper size are given below:

Normally, the longer dimension is the vertical one—that is, the height of the page. The default is letterpaper.

17

letterpaper

legalpaper

executivepaper

11×8.5 in

14×8.5 in 10.5×7.25 in

a4paper

a5paper

b5paper

20.7×21 in 21×14.8 in 25×17.6 in

18 II. THE DOCUMENT

II.1.3. Page formats

There are options for setting the contents of each page in a single column (as is usual) or

in two columns (as in most dictionaries). This is set by the options

onecolumn twocolumn

and the default is onecolumn.

There is also an option to specify whether the document will be finally printed on just

one side of each paper or on both sides. The names of the options are

oneside twoside

One of the differences is that with the twoside option, page numbers are printed on the right on odd-numbered pages and on the left on even numbered pages, so that when these printed back to back, the numbers are always on the outside, for better visibility. (Note that LATEX has no control over the actual printing. It only makes the formats for different types of printing.) The default is oneside for article, report and letter and twoside for book.

In the report and book class there is a provision to specify the different chapters (we will soon see how). Chapters always begin on a new page, leaving blank space in the previous page, if necessary. With the book class there is the additional restriction that chapters begin only on odd-numbered pages, leaving an entire page blank, if need be. Such behavior is controlled by the options,

openany openright

The default is openany for reportclass (so that chapters begin on “any” new page) and openright for the book class (so that chapters begin only on new right, that is, odd numbered, page).

There is also a provision in LATEX for formatting the “title” (the name of the docu- ment, author(s) and so on) of a document with special typographic consideration. In the article class, this part of the document is printed along with the text following on the first page, while for report and book, a separate title page is printed. These are set by the options

notitlepage titlepage

As noted above, the default is notitlepage for article and titlepage for report and book. As with the other options, the default behavior can be overruled by explicitly specifying an option with the documentclass command.

There are some other options to the documentclass which we will discuss in the rele- vant context.

II.2. PAGE STYLE

Having decided on the overall appearance of the document through the documentclass command with its various options, we next see how we can set the style for the individual pages. In LATEX parlance, each page has a “head” and “foot” usually containing such information as the current page number or the current chapter or section. Just what goes where is set by the command

pagestyle{…}

where the mandatory argument can be any one of the following styles plain empty headings myheadings

The behavior pertaining to each of these is given below:

plain

empty headings

myheadings

II.3. PAGE NUMBERING 19

The page head is empty and the foot contains just the page number, cen- tered with respect to the width of the text. This is the default for the article class if no pagestyle is specified in the preamble.

Both the head and foot are empty. In particular, no page numbers are printed.

This is the default for the book class. The foot is empty and the head contains the page number and names of the chapter section or subsection, depending on the document class and its options as given below:

The same as headings, except that the ‘section’ information in the head are not predetermined, but to be given explicitly using the commands markright or markboth as described below.

CLASS

OPTION

LEFT PAGE

RIGHT PAGE

book, report

one-sided

—

chapter

two-sided

chapter

section

article

one-sided

—

section

two-sided

section

subsection

Moreover, we can customize the style for the current page only using the command hispagestyle{style}

where style is the name of one of the styles above. For example, the page number may be suppressed for the current page alone by the command hispagestyle{empty}. Note that only the printing of the page number is suppressed. The next page will be numbered with the next number and so on.

II.2.1. Heading declarations

As we mentioned above, in the page style myheadings, we have to specify the text to

appear on the head of every page. It is done with one of the commands

markboth{left head{right head} markright{right head}

where left head is the text to appear in the head on left-hand pages and right head is the text to appear on the right-hand pages.

The markboth command is used with the twoside option with even numbered pages considered to be on the left and odd numbered pages on the right. With oneside option, all pages are considered to be right-handed and so in this case, the command markright can be used. These commands can also be used to override the default head set by the headings style.

Note that these give only a limited control over the head and foot. since the general format, including the font used and the placement of the page number, is fixed by LATEX. Better customization of the head and foot are offered by the package fancyhdr, which is included in most LATEX distributions.

II.3. PAGE NUMBERING

The style of page numbers can be specified by the command

pagenumbering{…}

The possible arguments to this command and the resulting style of the numbers are given below:

20

II. THE DOCUMENT

Indo-Arabic numerals lowercase Roman numerals upper case Roman numerals lowercase English letters uppercase English letters

arabic

roman

Roman

alph

Alph

The default value is arabic. This command resets the page counter. Thus for example, to number all the pages in the ‘Preface’ with lowercase Roman numerals and the rest of the document with Indo-Arabic numerals, declare pagenumbering{roman} at the beginning of the Preface and issue the command pagestyle{arabic} immediately after the first chapter command. (The chapter{…} command starts a new chapter. We will come to it soon.)

We can make the pages start with any number we want by the command

setcounter{page}{number}

where number is the page number we wish the current page to have.

II.4. FORMATTING LENGTHS

Each page that LATEX produces consists not only of a head and foot as discussed above but also a body (surprise!) containing the actual text. In formatting a page, LATEX uses the width and heights of these parts of the page and various other lengths such as the left and right margins. The values of these lengths are set by the paper size options and the page format and style commands. For example, the page layout with values of these lengths for an odd page and even in this book are separately shown below.

These lengths can all be changed with the command setlength. For example, setlength{ extwidth}{15cm}

makes the width of text 15 cm. The package geometry gives easier interfaces to customize page format.

II.5. PARTS OF A DOCUMENT

We now turn our attention to the contents of the document itself. Documents (especially longer ones) are divided into chapters, sections and so on. There may be a title part (sometimes even a separate title page) and an abstract. All these require special typo- graphic considerations and LATEX has a number of features which automate this task.

II.5.1. Title

The “title” part of a document usually consists of the name of the document, the name

of author(s) and sometimes a date. To produce a title, we make use of the commands

itle{document name} author{author names} date{date text}

maketitle

Note that after specifying the arguments of itle, author and date, we must issue the command maketitle for this part to be typeset.

By default, all entries produced by these commands are centered on the lines in which they appear. If a title text is too long to fit in one line, it will be broken automatically. However, we can choose the break points with the \ command.

If there are several authors and their names are separated by the and command, then the names appear side by side. Thus

itle{Title}

author{Author 1\

Address line 11\

Address line 12\

Address line 13

and

Author 2\

Address line 21\

Address line 22\

Address line 23}

date{Month Date, Year}

produces

II.6. DIVIDING THE DOCUMENT 21

Author 1 Address line 11 Address line 12 Address line 13

Author 2 Address line 21 Address line 22 Address line 23

Title

Month Date, Year

If instead of and, we use (plain old) \, the names are printed one below another.

We may leave some of these arguments empty; for example, the command date{ } prints no date. Note, however, that if you simply omit the date command itself, the current date will be printed. The command

hanks{footnote text}

can be given at any point within the itle, author or date. It puts a marker at this point and places the footnote text as a footnote. (The general method of producing a footnote is to type footnote{footnote text} at the point we want to refer to.)

As mentioned earlier, the “title” is printed in a separate page for the document classes book and report and in the first page of the document for the class article. (Also recall that this behavior can be modified by the options titlepage or notitlepage.)

II.5.2. Abstract

In the document classes article and report, an abstract of the document in special for-

mat can be produced by the commands

egin{abstract} Abstract Text end{abstract}

Note that we have to type the abstract ourselves. (There is a limit to what even LATEX can do.) In the report class this appears on the separate title page and in the article class it appears below the title information on the first page (unless overridden by the title page option). This command is not available in the book class.

II.6. DIVIDING THE DOCUMENT

A book is usually divided into chapters and (if it is technical one), chapters are divided into sections, sections into subsections and so on. LATEX provides the following hierarchy

22 II. THE DOCUMENT

of sectioning commands in the book and report class:

chapter

section

subsection

subsubsection

paragraph

subparagraph

Except for chapter all these are available in article class also. For example, the heading at the beginning of this chapter was produced by

chapter{The Document}

and the heading of this section was produced by

section{Dividing the document}

To see the other commands in action, suppose at this point of text I type

subsection{Example}

In this example, we show how subsections and subsubsections

are produced (there are no subsubsubsections). Note how the

subsections are numbered.

subsubsection{Subexample}

Did you note that subsubsections are not numbered? This is so in the

exttt{book} and exttt{report} classes. In the exttt{article}

class they too have numbers. (Can you figure out why?)

paragraph{Note}

Paragraphs and subparagraphs do not have numbers. And they have

extit{run-in} headings.

Though named ‘‘paragraph’’ we can have several paragraphs of text

within this.

subparagraph{Subnote}

Subparagraphs have an additional indentation too.

And they can also contain more than one paragraph of text.

We get

II.6.1. Example

In this example, we show how subsections and subsubsections are produced (there are

no subsubsubsections). Note how the subsections are numbered.

Subexample

Did you note that subsubsections are not numbered? This is so in the book and report classes. In the article class they too have numbers. (Can you figure out why?)

Note Paragraphs and subparagraphs do not have numbers. And they have run-in head- ings. Though named “paragraph” we can have several paragraphs of text within this.

Subnote Subparagraphs have an additional indentation too. And they can also con- tain more than one paragraph of text.

II.7. WHAT NEXT? 23

II.6.2. More on sectioning commands

In the book and the report classes, the chapter command shifts to the beginning of a new page and prints the word “Chapter” and a number and beneath it, the name we have given in the argument of the command. The section command produces two numbers (separated by a dot) indicating the chapter number and the section number followed by the name we have given. It does not produce any text like “Section”. Subsections have three numbers indicating the chapter, section and subsection. Subsubsections and commands below it in the hierarchy do not have any numbers.

In the article class, section is highest in the hierarchy and produces single number like chapter in book. (It does not produce any text like “Section”, though.) In this case, subsubsections also have numbers, but none below have numbers.

Each sectioning command also has a “starred” version which does not produce num- bers. Thus section*{name} has the same effect as section{name}, but produces no number for this section.

Some books and longish documents are divided into parts also. LATEX also has a part command for such documents. In such cases, part is the highest in the hierarchy, but it does not affect the numbering of the lesser sectioning commands.

You may have noted that LATEX has a specific format for typesetting the section head- ings, such as the font used, the positioning, the vertical space before and after the heading and so on. All these can be customized, but it requires some TEXpertise and cannot be addressed at this point. However, the package sectsty provided some easy interfaces for tweaking some of these settings.

II.7. WHAT NEXT?

The task of learning to create a document in LATEX is far from over. There are other things to do such as producing a bibliography and a method to refer to it and also at the end of it all to produce a table of contents and perhaps an index. All these can be done efficiently (and painlessly) in LATEX, but they are matters for other chapters.

T

Margin Notes

9iE ‘ 10i E

3iE

Footer

T

2i cc

c Header T

4i

5i

c

6

i

TT

Body

7i

‘

‘

‘ 8i E 11i

cc

‘ 1iE

T

1 one inch + hoffset

3 evensidemargin = 54pt 5 headheight = 12pt

7 extheight = 609pt

9 marginparsep = 7pt

11 footskip = 25pt hoffset = 0pt

paperwidth = 597pt

2 one inch + voffset 4 opmargin = 18pt 6 headsep = 18pt

8 extwidth = 380pt

10 marginparwidth = 115pt marginparpush = 5pt (not shown) voffset = 0pt

paperheight = 845pt

T

2i cc

4i

5i

T

c

c Header TT

i

6

Body

7i

9iE

Margin Notes

‘

‘ 10i E

3iE ‘

‘ 8i E 11i

cc

T

Footer

‘ 1iE

T

1 one inch + hoffset 3 oddsidemargin = 18pt 5 headheight = 12pt

7 extheight = 609pt 9 marginparsep = 7pt

11 footskip = 25pt hoffset = 0pt

paperwidth = 597pt

2 one inch + voffset 4 opmargin = 18pt 6 headsep = 18pt

8 extwidth = 380pt

10 marginparwidth = 115pt marginparpush = 5pt (not shown) voffset = 0pt

paperheight = 845pt

26

TUTORIAL III

BIBLIOGRAPHY

III.1. INTRODUCTION

Bibliography is the environment which helps the author to cross-reference one publica- tion from the list of sources at the end of the document. LATEX helps authors to write a well structured bibliography, because this is how LATEX works—by specifying structure.

It is easy to convert the style of bibliography to that of a publisher’s requirement, without touching the code inside the bibliography. We can maintain a bibliographic data base using the program BIBTEX. While preparing the articles, we can extract the needed references in the required style from this data base. harvard and natbib are widely used packages for generating bibliography.

To produce bibliography, we have the environment thebibliography1, which is sim- ilar to the enumerate environment. Here we use the command ibitem to separate the entries in the bibliography and use cite to refer to a specific entry from this list in the document. This means that at the place of citation, it will produce number or author-year code connected with the list of references at the end.

egin{thebibliography}{widest-label} ibitem{key1}

ibitem{key2} end{thebibliography}

The egin{thebibliography} command requires an argument that indicates the width of the widest label in the bibliography. If you know you would have between 10 and 99 citations, you should start with

egin{thebibliography}{99}

You can use any two digit number in the argument, since all numerals are of the same width. If you are using customized labels, put the longest label in argument, for example egin{thebibliography}{Long-name}. Each entry in the environment should start with

ibitem{key1}

If the author name is Alex and year 1991, the key can be coded as ale91 or some such mnemonic string2. This key is used to cite the publication within the document text. To cite a publication from the bibliography in the text, use the cite command, which takes with the corresponding key as the argument. However, the argument to cite can also be two or more keys, separated by commas.

1Bibiliography environment need two compilations. In the first compilation it will generate file with aux extension, where citation and bibcite will be marked and in the second compilation cite will be replaced by numeral or author-year code.

2Key can be any sequence of letters, digits and punctuation characters, except that it may not contain a comma (maximum 256 characters).

27

28 III. BIBLIOGRAPHY

cite{key1} cite{key1,key2}

In bibliography, numbering of the entries is generated automatically. You may also add a note to your citation, such as page number, chapter number etc. by using an optional argument to the cite command. Whatever text appears in this argument will be placed within square brackets, after the label.

cite[page ̃25]{key1}

See below an example of bibliography and citation. The following code

It is hard to write unstructured and disorganised documents using

LaTeX ̃cite{les85}.It is interesting to typeset one

equation ̃cite[Sec 3.3]{les85} rather than setting ten pages of

running matter ̃cite{don89,rondon89}.

egin{thebibliography}{9}

ibitem{les85}Leslie Lamport, 1985. emph{LaTeX—A Document

Preparation System—User’s Guide and Reference Manual},

Addision-Wesley, Reading.

ibitem{don89}Donald E. Knuth, 1989. emph{Typesetting Concrete

Mathematics}, TUGBoat, 10(1):31-36.

ibitem{rondon89}Ronald L. Graham, Donald E. Knuth, and Ore

Patashnik, 1989. emph{Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for

Computer Science}, Addison-Wesley, Reading.

end{thebibliography}

produces the following output:

It is hard to write unstructured and disorganised documents using LATEX [1]. It is interesting to typeset one equation [1, Sec 3.3] rather than setting ten pages of running matter [2,3].

Bibliography

[1] Leslie Lamport, 1985. LATEX—A Document Preparation System—User’s Guide and Refer- ence Manual, Addision-Wesley, Reading.

[2] Donald E. Knuth, 1989. Typesetting Concrete Mathematics, TUGBoat, 10(1):31-36.

[3] Ronald L. Graham, Donald E. Knuth, and Ore Patashnik, 1989. Concrete Mathematics:

A Foundation for Computer Science, Addison-Wesley, Reading.

III.2. NATBIB

The natbib package is widely used for generating bibliography, because of its flexible interface for most of the available bibliographic styles. The natbib package is a re- implementation of the LATEX cite command, to work with both author–year and nu- merical citations. It is compatible with the standard bibliographic style files, such as plain.bst, as well as with those for harvard, apalike, chicago, astron, authordate, and of course natbib. To load the package; use the command.

usepackage[options]{natbib}

III.2.1. Options for natbib

round

square

curly

angle

colon

comma

authoryear

numbers

super

sort

sort&compress

longnamesfirst

sectionbib

nonamebreak

(default) for round parentheses for square brackets

for curly braces

for angle brackets

(default) to separate multiple citations with colons to use commas as separators

(default) for author–year citations

for numerical citations

for superscripted numerical citations, as in Nature orders multiple citations into the sequence in which they appear in the list of references

as sort but in addition multiple numerical citations are compressed if possible (as 3–6, 15)

makes the first citation of any reference the equivalent of the starred variant (full author list) and subsequent citations normal (abbreviated list)

redefines hebibliography to issue section* instead of chapter*; valid only for classes with a chapter com- mand; to be used with the chapterbib package

keeps all the authors’ names in a citation on one line; causes overfull hboxes but helps with some hyperref problems.

III.2. NATBIB 29

You can set references in the Nature style of citations (superscripts) as follows documentclass{article}

usepackage{natbib}

citestyle{nature}

egin{document}

…….

……. end{document}

III.2.2. Basic commands

The natbib package has two basic citation commands, citet and citep for textual and parenthetical citations, respectively. There also exist the starred versions citet* and citep* that print the full author list, and not just the abbreviated one. All of these may take one or two optional arguments to add some text before and after the citation.

Normally we use author name and year for labeling the bibliography.

egin{thebibliography}{widest-label}

ibitem{Leslie(1985)}{les85}Leslie Lamport, 1985.

emph{LaTeX—A Document Preparation}…

ibitem{Donale(00)}{don89}Donald E. Knuth, 1989.

emph{Typesetting Concrete Mathematics},…

ibitem{Ronald, Donald and Ore(1989)}{rondon89}Ronald L. Graham, …

end{thebibliography}

Year in parentheses is mandatory in optional argument for bibitem. If year is missing in any of the bibitem, the whole author–year citation will be changed to numerical cita- tion. To avoid this, give ‘(0000)’ for year in optional argument and use partial citations (citeauthor) in text.

30 III. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Don’t put ‘space character’ before opening bracket of year in optional argument.

citet{ale91}

citet[chap. ̃4]{ale91}

citep{ale91}

citep[chap. ̃4]{ale91}

citep[see][]{ale91}

citep[see][chap. ̃4]{jon91}

citet*{ale91}

citep*{ale91}

⇒ Alex et al. (1991)

⇒ Alex et al. (1991, chap. 4)

⇒ (Alex et al., 1991)

⇒ (Alex et al., 1991, chap. 4)

⇒ (see Alex et al., 1991)

⇒ (see Alex et al., 1991, chap. 4)

⇒ Alex, Mathew, and Ravi (1991) ⇒ (Alex, Mathew, and Ravi, 1991)

III.2.3. Multiple citations

Multiple citations may be made as usual, by including more than one citation key in the

cite command argument.

III.2.4. Numerical mode

These examples are for author–year citation mode. In numerical mode, the results are

different.

citet{ale91,rav92} ⇒ citep{ale91,rav92} ⇒ citep{ale91,ale92} ⇒ citep{ale91a,ale91b} ⇒

Alex et al. (1991); Ravi et al. (1992) (Alex et al., 1991; Ravi et al. 1992) (Alex et al., 1991, 1992)

(Alex et al., 1991a,b)

citet{ale91}

citet[chap. ̃4]{ale91}

citep{ale91}

citep[chap. ̃4]{ale91}

citep[see][]{ale91}

citep[see][chap. ̃4]{ale91}

citep{ale91a,ale91b}

⇒ Alex et al. [5]

⇒ Alex et al. [5, chap. 4] ⇒ [5]

⇒ [5, chap. 4]

⇒ [see 5]

⇒ [see 5, chap. 4]

⇒ [5, 12]

III.2.5. Suppressed parentheses

As an alternative form of citation, citealt is the same as citet but without any paren- theses. Similarly, citealp is citep with the parentheses turned off. Multiple references, notes, and the starred variants also exist.

The citetext command allows arbitrary text to be placed in the current citation paren- theses. This may be used in combination with citealp.

citealt{ale91}

citealt*{ale91}

citealp{ale91}

citealp*{ale91}

citealp{ale91,ale92}

citealp[pg. ̃7]{ale91}

citetext{short comm.}

⇒ Alex et al. 1991

⇒ Alex, Mathew, and Ravi 1991

⇒ Alex., 1991

⇒ Alex, Mathew, and Ravi, 1991

⇒ Alex et al., 1991; Alex et al., 1992 ⇒ Alex., 1991, pg. 7

⇒ (short comm.)

III.2. NATBIB 31

III.2.6. Partial citations

In author–year schemes, it is sometimes desirable to be able to refer to the authors with-

out the year, or vice versa. This is provided with the extra commands

III.2.7. Citations aliasing

Sometimes one wants to refer to a reference with a special designation, rather than by the authors, i.e. as Paper I, Paper II. Such aliases can be defined and used, textually and/or parenthetically with:

defcitealias{jon90}{Paper ̃I}

These citation commands function much like citet and citep: they may take multiple keys in the argument, may contain notes, and are marked as hyperlinks.

III.2.8. Selecting citation style and punctuation

Use the command ibpunct with one optional and six mandatory arguments:

1. The opening bracket symbol, default = (

2. The closing bracket symbol, default = )

3. The punctuation between multiple citations, default = ;

4. The letter ‘n’ for numerical style, or ‘s’ for numerical superscript style, any other letter

for author–year, default = author–year;

5. The punctuation that comes between the author names and the year

6. The punctuation that comes between years or numbers when common author lists are

suppressed (default = ,);

The optional argument is the character preceding a post-note, default is a comma

plus space. In redefining this character, one must include a space if that is what one wants.

Example 1 ibpunct{[}{]}{,}{a}{}{;}

changes the output of

citep{jon90,jon91,jam92}

into

[Jones et al. 1990; 1991, James et al. 1992].

citeauthor{ale91} citeauthor*{ale91} citeyear{ale91} citeyearpar{ale91} ⇒ (1991)

⇒ Alex et al.

⇒ Alex, Mathew, and Ravi ⇒ 1991

citetalias{ale91} ⇒ Paper I citepalias{ale91} ⇒ (Paper I)

32 III. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Example 2 ibpunct[;]{(}{)}{,}{a}{}{;}

changes the output of

citep[and references therein]{jon90}

into

(Jones et al. 1990; and references therein).

TUTORIAL IV

BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES

Bibliographic database is a database in which all the useful bibliographic entries can be stored. The information about the various publications is stored in one or more files with the extension .bib. For each publication, there is a key that identifies it and which may be used in the text document to refer to it. And this is available for all documents with a list of reference in the field. This database is useful for the authors/researchers who are constantly referring to the same publications in most of their works. This database system is possible with the BIBTEX program supplied with the LATEX package.

IV.1. THE BIBTEX PROGRAM

BIBTEX is an auxiliary program to LATEX that automatically constructs a bibliography for a LATEX document from one or more databases. To use BIBTEX, you must include in your LATEX input file a ibliography command whose argument specifies one or more files that contain the database. For example

ibliography{database1,database2}

The above command specifies that the bibliographic entries are obtained from database1.bib and database2.bib. To use BIBTEX, your LATEX input file must contain a ibliographystyle command. This command specifies the bibliography style, which determines the format of the source list. For example, the command

ibliographystyle{plain}

specifies that entries should be formatted as specified by the plain bibliography style (plain.bst). We can put ibliographystyle command anywhere in the document after the egin{document} command.

plain unsrt

alpha abbrv acm

IV.2. BIBTEX STYLE FILES

Standard BIBTEX style. Entries sorted alphabetically with numeric labels.

Standard BIBTEX style. Similar to plain, but entries are printed in order of citation, rather than sorted. Numeric labels are used.

Standard BIBTEX style. Similar to plain, but the labels of the entries are formed from the author’s name and the year of publication.

Standard BIBTEX style. Similar to plain, but entries are more compact, since first names, month, and journal names are abbreviated.

Alternative BIBTEX style, used for the journals of the Association for Comput- ing Machinery. It has the author name (surname and first name) in small caps, and numbers as labels.

33

34 IV. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES

apalike Alternative BIBTEX style, used by the journals of the American Psychology As- sociation. It should be used together with the LATEX apalike package. The bibliography entries are formatted alphabetically, last name first, each entry having a hanging indentation and no label.

Examples of some other style files are:

abbrv.bst, abstract.bst, acm.bst, agsm.bst, alpha.bst, amsalpha.bst, authordatei.bst, authordate1-4.sty, bbs.bst, cbe.bst, cell.bst, dcu.bst, harvard.sty, ieeetr.bst, jtb.bst,

kluwer.bst, named.bst, named.sty, nat- bib.sty, natbib.bst, nature.sty, nature.bst, phcpc.bst, phiaea.bst, phjcp.bst, phrmp.bst plainyr.bst, siam.bst

Various organisations or individuals have developed style files that correspond to the house style of particular journals or editing houses. We can also customise a bibliography style, by making small changes to any of the .bst file, or else generate our own using the makebst program.

IV.2.1. Steps for running BIBTEX with LATEX

1. Run LATEX, which generates a list of cite references in its auxiliary file, .aux.

2. Run BIBTEX, which reads the auxiliary file, looks up the references in a database (one or more .bib files, and then writes a file (the .bbl file) containing the formatted references according to the format specified in the style file (the .bst file). Warning and error messages are written to the log file (the .blg file). It should be noted that

BIBTEX never reads the original LATEX source file.

3. Run LATEX again, which now reads the .bbl reference file.

4. Run LATEX a third time, resolving all references.

Occasionally the bibliography is to include publications that were not referenced in

the text. These may be added with the command

ocite{key}

given anywhere within the main document. It produces no text at all but simply informs BIBTEX that this reference is also to be put into the bibliography. With

ocite{*}, every entry in all the databases will be included, something that is useful when producing a list of all entries and their keys.

After running BIBTEX to make up the .bbl file, it is necessary to process LATEX at least twice to establish both the bibliography and the in-text reference labels. The bibliography will be printed where the ibliography command is issued; it infact inputs the .bbl file.

IV.3. CREATING A BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE

Though bibliographic database creation demands more work than typing up a list of references with the thebibliography environment; it has a great advantage that, the en- tries need to be included in the database only once and are then available for all future publications even if a different bibliography style is demanded in later works, all the in- formation is already on hand in the database for BIBTEX to write a new thebibliography environment in another format. Given below is a specimen of an entry in bibliographic database:

@BOOK{knuth:86a,

AUTHOR =”Donald E. Knuth”,

TITLE

EDITION

PUBLISHER

ADDRESS

YEAR

IV.3. CREATING A BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE 35

={The TeX{}book},

=”third”

=”Addison-Wesley”,

={Reading, MA},

=1986 }

The first word, prefixed @, determines the entry type. The entry type is followed by the reference information for that entry enclosed in curly braces { }. The very first entry is the key for the whole reference by which it is referred to in the cite command. In the above example it is knuth:86a. The actual reference information is then entered in various fields, separated from one another by commas. Each field consists of a field name, an = sign, with optional spaces on either side, and the field text. The field names shows above are AUTHOR, TITLE, PUBLISHER, ADDRESS, and YEAR. The field text must be enclosed either in curly braces or in double quotation marks. However, if the text consists solely of a number, as for YEAR above, the braces or quotation marks may be left off.

For each entry type, certain fields are required, others are optional, and the rest are ignored. These are listed with the description of the various entry types below. If a required field is omitted, an error message will appear during the BIBTEX run. Optional fields will have their information included in the bibliography if they are present, but they need not be there. Ignored fields are useful for including extra information in the database that will not be output, such as a comment or an abstract of a paper. Ignored fields might also be ones that are used by other database programs.

The general syntax for entries in the bibliographic database reads

@entry_type{key,

field_name = {field text},

….

field_name = {field text} }

The names of the entry types as well as the field names may be written in capitals or lower case letters, or in a combination of both. Thus @BOOK, @book, and @bOOk are all acceptable variations.

The outermost pair of braces for the entire entry may be either curly braces { }, as illustrated, or parentheses ( ). In the latter case, the general syntax reads

@entry_type(key, … ..)

However, the field text may only be enclosed within curly braces {…} or double quotation marks … as shown in the example above.

The following is a list of the standard entry types in alphabetical order, with a brief description of the types of works for which they are applicable, together with the required and optional fields that they take.

@article: required fields: optional fields: @book: required fields: optional fields: @booklet:

required fields: optional fields:

Entry for an article from a journal or magazine. author, title, journal, year.

volume, number, pages, month, note.

Entry for a book with a definite publisher. author or editor, title, publisher, year.

volume or number, series, address, edition, month, note.

Entry for a printed and bound work without the name of a publisher or sponsoring organisation.

title.

author, howpublished, address, month, year, note.

36

@conference: required fields: optional fields:

@inbook: required fields: optional fields: @incollection: required fields: optional fields:

@inproceedings: required fields: optional fields:

@manual: required fields: optional fields: @masterthesis: required fields: optional fields: @misc:

required fields: optional fields: @phdthesis: required fields: optional fields: @proceedings: required fields: optional fields:

@unpublished: required fields: optional fields:

IV. BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES

Entry for an article in conference proceedings.

author, title, booktitle, year.

editor, volume or number, series, pages, address, month, organisa- tion, publisher, note.

Entry for a part (chapter, section, certain pages) of a book.

author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year. volume or number, series, type, address, edition, month, note. Entry for part of a book that has its own title.

author, title, booktitle, publisher, year.

editor, volume or number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edi- tion, month, note.

Entry for an article in conference proceedings.

author, title, booktitle, year.

editor, volume or number, series, pages, address, month, organisa- tion, publisher, note.

Entry for technical documentation.

title.

author, organisation, address, edition, month, year, note.

Entry for a Master’s thesis.

author, title, school, year.

type, address, month, note.

Entry for a work that does not fit under any of the others.

none.

author, title, howpublished, month, year, note.

Entry for a PhD thesis.

author, title, school, year.

type, address, month, note.

Entry for conference proceedings.

title, year.

editor, volume or number, series, address, month, organisation, publisher, note.

Entry for an unpublished work with an author and title.

author, title, note.

month, year.

IV.3.1. ExampleofaLATEXfile(sample.tex)usingbibliographicaldatabase(bsample.bib)

documentclass{article}

pagestyle{empty}

egin{document}

section*{Example of Citations of Kind exttt{plain}}

Citation of a normal book ̃cite{Eijkhout:1991} and an edited

book ̃cite{Roth:postscript}. Now we cite an article written by a

single ̃cite{Felici:1991} and by multiple

authors ̃cite{Mittlebatch/Schoepf:1990}. A reference to an

article inside proceedings ̃cite{Yannis:1991}.

We refer to a manual ̃cite{Dynatext} and a technical

report ̃cite{Knuth:WEB}. A citation of an unpublished

work ̃cite{EVH:Office}. A reference to a chapter in a

book ̃cite{Wood:color} and to a PhD thesis ̃cite{Liang:1983}.

IV.3. CREATING A BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE 37

An example of multiple

citations ̃cite{Eijkhout:1991,Roth:postscript}.

ibliographystyle{plain} %% plain.bst

ibliography{bsample} %% bsample.bib

end{document}

IV.3.2. Procedure for producing references for the above file sample.tex which uses bib- liographic data base bsample.bib

$ latex sample

$ bibtex sample

$ latex sample

% 1st run of LaTeX

% BibTeX run

% Then sample.bbl file will

% be produced

% 2nd run of LaTeX

If still unresolved citation references

$ latex sample % 3rd run of LaTeX

38

TUTORIAL V

TABLE OF CONTENTS, INDEX AND GLOSSARY V.1. TABLE OF CONTENTS

A table of contents is a special list which contains the section numbers and corresponding headings as given in the standard form of the sectioning commands, together with the page numbers on which they begin. Similar lists exist containing reference information about the floating elements in a document, namely, the list of tables and list of figures. The structure of these lists is simpler, since their contents, the captions of the floating elements, all are on the same level.

Standard LATEX can automatically create these three contents lists. By default, LATEX enters text generated by one of the arguments of the sectioning commands into the .toc file. Similarly, LATEX maintains two more files, one for the list of figures (.lof) and one for the list of tables (.lot), which contain the text specified as the argument of the caption command for figures and tables.

ableofcontents produces a table of contents. listoffigures and listoftables produce a list of figures and list of tables respectively. These lists are printed at the point where these commands are issued. Occasionally, you may find that you do not like the way LATEX prints a table of contents or a list of figures or tables. You can fine- tune an individual entry by using the optional arguments to the sectioning command or caption command that generates it. Formatting commands can also be introduced with the addtocontents. If all else fails, you can edit the .toc, lof, lot files yourself. Edit these files only when preparing the final version of your document, and use a

ofiles command to suppress the writing of new versions of the files.

V.1.1. Additional entries

The *-form sectioning commands are not entered automatically in the table of contents.

LATEX offers two commands to insert such information directly into a contents file:

addtocontents{file}{text} addcontentsline{file}{type}{text}

file The extension of the contents file, usually toc, lof or lot.

type The type of the entry. For the toc file the type is normally the same as the heading according to the format of which an entry must be typeset.

For the lof or lot files, figure or table is specified.

text The actual information to be written to the file mentioned. LATEX com-

mands should be protected by protect to delay expansion

The addtocontents command does not contain a type parameter and is intended to enter user-specific formatting information. For example, if you want to generate addi- tional spacing in the middle of a table of contents, the following command can be issued:

addtocontents{toc}{protectvspace{2ex}}

39

40 V. TABLE OF CONTENTS, INDEX AND GLOSSARY

The addcontentsline instruction is usually invoked automatically by the document sectioning commands, or by the caption commands. If the entry contains numbered text, then

umberline must be used to separate the section number (number) from the rest of the text for the entry (heading) in the text parameter:

protect

umberline{number}{heading}

For example, a caption command inside a figure environment saves the text an-

notating the figure as follows: addcontentsline{lof}{figure}{protect

umberline{ hefigure}captioned text}

Sometimes addcontentsline is used in the source to complement the actions of standard LATEX. For instance, in the case of the starred form of the section commands, no information is written to the .toc file. So if you do not want a heading number (starred form) but an entry in the .toc file you can write something like:

chapter*{Forward}

addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{

umberline{}Forward}

This produces an indented “chapter” entry in the table of contents, leaving the space where the chapter number would go free. Omitting the

umberline command would typeset the word “Forward” flush left instead.

V.1.2. Typesetting a contents list

As discussed above, contents lists consist of entries of different types, corresponding to the structural units that they represent. Apart from these standard entries, these lists may contain any commands. A standard entry is specified by the command:

contentsline{type}{text}{page}

type Type of the entry, e.g. section, or figure.

text Actual text as specified in the argument of the sectioning or caption

commands. page Pagenumber.

Note that section numbers are entered as a parameter of the

umberline command to allow formatting with the proper indentation. It is also possible for the user to create a table of contents by hand with the help of the command contentsline. For example:

contentsline {section}

{

umberline {2.4}Structure of the Table of Contents}{31}

To format an entry in the table of contents files, standard LATEX makes use of the following command:

@dottedtocline{level}{indent}{numwidth}{text}{page}

The last two parameters coincide with those of contentsline, since the latter usu- ally invokes @dottedtocline command. The other parameters are the following:

level The nesting level of an entry. This parameter allows the user to control how many nesting levels will be displayed. Levels greater than the value of counter tocdepth will not appear in the table of contents.

indent This is total indentation from the left margin.

numwidth The width of the box that contains the number if text has a

umberline

command. This is also the amount of extra indentation added to the second and later lines of a multiple line entry.

V.2. INDEX 41

Additionally, the command @dottedtocline uses the following formatting parame- ters, which specify the visual appearance of all entries:

@pnumwidth

@tocmarg

@dotsep

The width of the box in which the page number is set.

The indentation of the right margin for all but the last line of multiple

line entries. Dimension, but changed with

enewcommand.

The separation between dots, in mu (math units). It is a pure number (like 1.7 or 2). By making this number large enough you can get rid of the dots altogether. Changed with

enewcommand as well.

V.1.3. Multiple tables of contents

The minitoc package, initially written by Nigel Ward and Dan Jurafsky and completely redesigned by Jean-Pierre Drucbert, creates a mini-table of contents (a “minitoc”) at the beginning of each chapter when you use the book or report classes.

The mini-table of contents will appear at the beginning of a chapter, after the chapter command. The parameters that govern the use of this package are discussed below:

Table V.1: Summary of the minitoc parameters

dominitoc

faketableofcontents

minitoc

minitocdepth

mtcindent

mtcfont

For each mini-table, an ter number, will be created.

Must be put just in front of ableofcontents, to initialize the minitoc system (Mandatory).

This command replaces ableofcontents when you want minitocs but not table of contents.

This command must be put right after each chapter com- mand where a minitoc is desired.

A LATEX counter that indicates how many levels of head- ings will be displayed in the minitoc (default value is 2). The length of the left/right indentation of the minitoc (de- fault value is 24pt).

Command defining the font that is used for the minitoc entries (The default definition is a small roman font).

auxiliary file with extension .mtc

By default, these mini-tables contain only references to sections and subsections. The minitocdepth counter, similar to tocdepth, allows the user to modify this behaviour.

As the minitoc takes up room on the first page(s) of a chapter, it will alter the page numbering. Therefore, three runs normally are needed to get correct information in the mini-table of contents.

To turn off the minitoc commands, merely replace the package minitoc with mini- tocoff on your usepackage command. This assures that all minitoc commands will be ignored.

V.2. INDEX

To find a topic of interest in a large document, book, or reference work, you usually turn to the table of contents or, more often, to the index. Therefore, an index is a very important part of a document, and most users’ entry point to a source of information is precisely through a pointer in the index. The most generally used index preparation program is MakeIndex.

42 V. TABLE OF CONTENTS, INDEX AND GLOSSARY

Page vi: Page 5: Page 6: Page 7: Page 11: Page 17:

Page 26: Page 32:

index{animal}

index{animal}

index{animal}

index{animal} index{animalism|see{animal}} index{animal@emph{animal}} index{mammal|textbf} index{animal!mammal!cat} index{animal!insect}

(a) The input file

indexentry{animal}{vi} indexentry{animal}{5} indexentry{animal}{6} indexentry{animal}{7} indexentry{animalism|seeanimal}{11} indexentry{animal@emph{animal}}{17} indexentry{mammal|textbf}{17} indexentry{animal!mammal!cat}{26} indexentry{animal!insect}{32}

(b) The .idx file

animal, vi 5–7 insect, 32

mammal cat, 26

animal, 17 animalism, see animal

mammal, 17

(d) The typeset output

egin{theindex}

item animal, vi, 5–7

subitem insect, 32 subitem mammal

subsubitem cat, 26

item emph{animal}, 17

item animalism, see{animal}{11}

indexspace

item mammal, extbf{17}

end{theindex}

(c) The .ind file

Figure V.1: Stepwise development of index processing

Each index command causes LATEX to write an entry in the .idx file. This command writes the text given as an argument, in the .idx file. This .idx will be generated only if we give makeindex command in the preamble otherwise it will produce nothing.

index{index entry}

To generate index follow the procedure given below:

1. Tag the words inside the document, which needs to come as index, as an argument of index command.

2. Includethemakeidxpackagewithanusepackagecommandandputmakeindexcom- mand at the preamble.

3. Putaprintindexcommandwheretheindexistoappear,normallybeforeend{document} command.

4. LATEX file. Then a raw index (file.idx) will be generated.

5. Then run makeindex. (makeindex file.idx or makeindex file). Then two more files will

be generated, file.ind which contains the index entries and file.ilg, a transcript file.

6. Then run LATEX again. Now you can see in the dvi that the index has been generated

in a new page.

V.2.1. Simple index entries

Each index command causes LATEX to write an entry in the .idx file. For example index{index entry}

V.2.2. Sub entries

V.2. INDEX 43

fonts

Computer Modern, 13–25 math, see math, fonts PostScript, 5

table, ii–xi, 14

Page ii: Page xi: Page 5:

Page 13 Page 14: Page 17: Page 21: Page 25:

index{table|(}

index{table|)} index{fonts!PostScript|(} index{fonts!PostScript|)} index{fonts!Computer Modern |(} index{table} index{fonts!math|see{math, fonts}} index{fonts!Computer Modern} index{fonts!Computer Modern|)}

Figure V.2: Page range and cross-referencing

Up to three levels of index entries (main, sub, and subsub entries) are available with LATEX-MakeIndex. To produce such entries, the argument of the index command should contain both the main and subentries, separated by ! character.

Page 5: index{dimensions!rule!width}

This will come out as

dimensions rule

width, 5

V.2.3. Page ranges and cross-references

You can specify a page range by putting the command index{…|(} at the beginning of the range and index{…|)} at the end of the range. Page ranges should span a homoge- neous numbering scheme (e.g., Roman and Arabic page numbers cannot fall within the same range).

You can also generate cross-reference index entries without page numbers by using the see encapsulator. Since “see” entry does not print any page number, the commands index{…|see{…}} can be placed anywhere in the input file after the egin{document} command. For practical reasons, it is convenient to group all such cross-referencing commands in one place.

V.2.4. Controlling the presentation form

Sometimes you may want to sort an entry according to a key, while using a different visual representation for the typesetting, such as Greek letters, mathematical symbols, or specific typographic forms. This function is available with the syntax: key@visual, where key determines the alphabetical position and the string value produces the typeset text of the entry.

For some indexes certain page numbers should be formatted specially, with an italic page number (for example) indicating a primary reference, and an n after a page number denoting that the item appears in a footnote on that page. MakeIndex allows you to format an individual page number in any way you want by using the encapsulator syntax specified | character. What follows the | sign will “encapsulate” or enclose the page num- ber associated with the index entry. For instance, the command index{keyword|xxx} will produce a page number of the form xxx{n}, where n is the page number in question.

44 V. TABLE OF CONTENTS, INDEX AND GLOSSARY

delta, 14

δ, 23

delta wing, 16

flower, 19

ninety, 26

xc, 28

ninety-five, 5

tabbing, 7, 34–37 tabular, ii, 21, 22n tabular environment, 23

Page ii: Page 5: Page 7: Page 14: Page 16: Page 19: Page 21: Page 22: Page 23:

Page 26: Page 28: Page 34: Page 36:

index{tabular|textbf} index{ninety-five} index{tabbing}

index{delta}

index{delta wing} index{flower@ extbf{flower}} index{tabular|textit} index{tabular|nn} index{delta@δ} index{tabular@ exttt{tabular}

environment} index{ninety} index{ninety@xc} index{tabbing|(textit} index{tabbing|)}

Figure V.3: Controlling the presentation form

@ sign, 2

|, see vertical bar exclamation (!), 4

Ah!, 5 Ma ̈dchen, 3 quote (“), 1

” sign, 1

Page 1:

Page 2: Page 3: Page 4: Page 5:

index{bar@ exttt{“|}|see{vertical bar}} index{quote (verb+””+)} index{quote@ exttt{“”} sign} index{atsign@ exttt{“@} sign} index{maedchen@M”{a}dchen} index{exclamation (“!)} index{exclamation (“!)!Ah”!}

Figure V.4: Printing those special characters

Similarly, the command index{keyword|(xxx)} will generate a page range of the form xxx{n-m}

ewcommand{

n}[1]{#1n}

V.2.5. Printing those special characters

To typeset one of the characters having a special meaning to MakeIndex (!, “, @, or |) in the index, precede it with a ” character. More precisely, any character is said to be quoted if it follows an unquoted ” that is not part of a ” command. The latter case is for allowing umlaut characters. Quoted !, @, “, or | characters are treated like ordinary characters, losing their special meaning. The ” preceding a quoted character is deleted before the entries are alphabetised.

V.3. GLOSSARY

A ‘glossary’ is a special index of terms and phrases alphabetically ordered together with

their explanations. To help set up a glossary, LATEX offers the commands

makeglossary in the preamble and glossary{glossary-entry} in the text part

V.3. GLOSSARY 45

which function just like the commands for making up an index register. The entries are written to a file with extension .glo after the command makeglossary has been given in the preamble. The form of these file entries from each glossary command is

glossaryentry extit{glossary-entry}{pagenumber}

The information in the .glo file can be used to establish a glossary. However, there is no equivalent to the theindex environment for a glossary, but a recommended structure is the description environment or a special list environment.

46

TUTORIAL VI

DISPLAYED TEXT

There are many instances in a document when we want to visually separate a portion of text from its surrounding material. One method of doing this is to typeset the distin- guished text with added indentation. It is called displaying. LATEX has various constructs for displaying text depending the nature of the displayed text.

VI.1. BORROWED WORDS

Quotations are often used in a document, either to add weight to our arguments by referring to a higher authority or because we find that we cannot improve on the way an idea has been expressed by someone else. If the quote is a one-liner, we can simply include it within double-quotes and be done with it (remember how to use quotes in TEX?) But if the quotation is several lines long, it is better to display it. Look at the following example:

Some mathematicians elevate the spirit of Mathematics to a kind of intellectual aesthetics. It is best voiced by Bertrand Russell in the following lines.

The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in Mathematics as surely as in poetry.. . . Real life is, to most men, a long second best, a perpetual compro- mise between the ideal and the possible; but the world of pure reason knows no compromise, no practical limitations, no barriers to the creative activity embody- ing in splendid edifices the passionate aspiration after the perfect, from which all great work springs.

Yes, to men like Russell, Mathematics is more of an art than science.

This was type set as shown below

Some mathematicians elevate the spirit of Mathematics to a kind of

intellectual aesthetics. It is best voiced by Bertrand Russell in the

following lines.

egin{quote}

The true spirit of …………………………..from which

all great work springs.

end{quote}

Note that here we give instructions to TEX to typeset some material in a separate paragraph with additional indentation on either side and indicate the start and end of material requiring special treatment, by means of the commands

egin{quote} … end{quote}

47

48 VI. DISPLAYED TEXT

This is an example of what is known in LATEX parlance as an environment. Environ- ments are used to delimit passages requiring special typographic treatments and to give instructions to LATEX on how to typeset it. The general form of an environment is of the form

egin{name} … end{name}

where name is the name of the environment and signifies to LATEX the type of typographic

treatment required (deliberate attempt at a pun, that).

The quoted part in this example is a single paragraph. If the quotation runs into

several paragraphs, we must use the quotation environment, by enclosing the quotation within egin{quotation} and end{quotation}. As usual, paragraphs are separated by blank lines while typing the source file.

VI.2. POETRY IN TYPESETTING

LATEX can write poetry…well almost; if you write poems, TEX can nicely typeset it for you. (I have also heard some TEX wizards saying Knuth’s code is sheer poetry!) Look at the passage below:

This was typeset as follows:

Contrary to popular belief, … tried their hands at it:

egin{verse}

A mathematician confided\

A M”obius band is one sided\

You’ll get quite a laugh\

If you cut it in half\

For it stays in one piece when divided

end{verse}

There is an extension of this to Klein’s bottle also.

Note that line breaks are forced by the symbol \. Different stanzas are separated in the input by one (or more) blank lines. If you do not want TEX to start a new page at a particular line break (if you want to keep rhyming couplets together in one page, for example), then use \* instead of plain \. Again, if you want more space between lines than what LATEX deems fit, then use \ with an optional length as in \[5pt] which adds an extra vertical space of 5 points between the lines. You can also type \*[5pt], whose intention should be obvious by now.

VI.3. MAKING LISTS

Lists are needed to keep some semblance of order in a chaotic world and LATEX helps us to typeset them nicely. Also, there are different kinds of lists available by default and if

Contrary to popular belief, limericks are not always ribald. Some of them contain mathemati- cal concepts:

A mathematician once confided That a Mo ̈ bius band is one sided You’ll get quite a laugh

If you cut it in half

For it stays in one piece when divided There is an extension of this to Klein’s bottle also.

VI.3. MAKING LISTS 49

none of them suits your need, there are facilities to tweak these or even design your own. Let us first have a look at the types of lists LATEX provides.

VI.3.1. Saying it with bullets

The itemize environment gives us a bullet-list. For example it produces something like

this:

One should keep the following in mind when using TEX

• TEX is a typesetting language and not a word processor

• TEX is a program and and not an application

• Theres is no meaning in comparing TEX to a word processor, since the design purposes are different

Being a program, TEX offers a high degree of flexibility.

The input which produces this is given below:

One should keep the following in mind when using TeX

egin{itemize}

item TeX is a typesetting language and not a word processor

item TeX is a program and and not an application

item Theres is no meaning in comparing eX to a word processor, since the design

purposes are different

end{itemize}

Being a program, TeX offers a high degree of flexibility.

The egin{itemize} … end{itemize} pair signifies we want a bullet-list of the enclosed material. Each item of the list is specified by (what else?) an item command.

We can have lists within lists. For example:

One should keep the following in mind when using TEX

• TEX is a typesetting language and not a word processor

• TEX is a program and and not an application

• Theres is no meaning in comparing TEX to a word processor, since the design purposes

are different

• TEX is the natural choice in one of these situations

– If we want to typeset a document containing lot of Mathematics – If we want our typed document to look beautiful

Being a program, TEX offers a high degree of flexibility.

It is produced by the input below:

One should keep the following in mind when using TeX

egin{itemize}

item TeX is a typesetting language and not a word processor

item TeX is a program and and not an application

item Theres is no meaning in comparing TeX to a word processor, since the design

purposes are different

item TeX is the natural choice in one of these situations

egin{itemize}

item If we want to typeset a document containing lot of Mathematics

50 VI. DISPLAYED TEXT

item If we want our typed document to look beautiful

end{itemize}

end{itemize}

Being a program, TeX offers a high degree of flexibility.

The itemize environment supports four levels of nesting. The full list of labels for the items (‘bullets’ for the first level, ‘dashes’ for the second and so on) is as shown below

• The first item in the first level

• the second item in the first level

– The first item in the second level

– the second item in the second level

∗ The first item in the third level

∗ the second item in the third level

· The first item in the fourth level

· the second item in the fourth level

Not satisfied with these default labels? How about this one?

It was produced by the following input:

{

enewcommand{labelitemi}{$ riangleright$}

egin{itemize}

item First item of a new list

item Second item

end{itemize}}

Several things need explanation here. First note that the first level labels of the itemize environment are produced by the (internal and so invisible to the user) command labelitemi and by default, this is set as extbullet to produce the default ‘bullets’. What we do here by issuing the

enewcommand is to override this by a choice of our own namely $ riangleright$ which produces the little triangles in the above list. Why the braces { and } (did you notice them?) enclosing the whole input? They make the effect of the

enewcommand local in the sense that this change of labels is only for this specific list. Which means the next time we use an itemize environment, the labels revert back to the original ‘bullets’. If we want the labels to be changed in the entire document, then remove the braces.

What if we want to change the second level labels? No problem, just change the labelitemii command, using a symbol of our choice. The third and fourth level labels are set by the commands (can you guess?) labelitemiii and labelitemiv. Look at the following example.

◃ First item of a new list ◃ Second item

VI.4. WHEN ORDER MATTERS 51

☛ The first item in the first level ☛ the second item in the first level

☞ The first item in the second level ☞ the second item in the second level

✌ The first item in the third level

✌ the second item in the third level

✍ The first item in the fourth level ✍ the second item in the fourth level

Here the labels are chosen from the PostScript ZapfDingbats font. We will have to use the package pifont, by including the line usepackage{pifont} in our document preamble to access them. The source of the above output is

enewcommand{labelitemi}{ding{42}}

enewcommand{labelitemii}{ding{43}}

enewcommand{labelitemiii}{ding{44}}

enewcommand{labelitemiv}{ding{45}}

egin{itemize}

item The first item in the first level

item the second item in the first level

egin{itemize}

item The first item in the second level

item the second item in the second level

egin{itemize}

item The first item in the third level

item the second item in the third level

egin{itemize}

item The first item in the fourth level

item the second item in the fourth level

end{itemize}

end{itemize}

end{itemize}

end{itemize}}

VI.4. WHEN ORDER MATTERS

When the order of the items in a list is important, we need a list which specifies this order.

For example, consider this

Such a numbered list is produced by the enumerate environment in LATEX. The above list was produced by the following source.

egin{enumerate}

item prepare a source file with the extension “tex”

The three basic steps in producing a printed document using LATEX are as follows

1. Prepare a source file with the extension tex 2. Compile it with LATEX to produce a dvi file 3. Printthedocumentusingadvidriver

52 VI. DISPLAYED TEXT

item Compile it with LaTeX to produce a “dvi” file

item Print the document using a “dvi” driver

end{enumerate}

As in the case of itemize environment, here also four levels of nesting are supports. The example below shows the labels used for different levels.

How about customizing the labels? Here there is an additional complication in that the labels for items in the same level must follow a sequence (such as 1,2,3,…for the first level, (a), (b), (c),. . . for the second and so on, by default). There is a method for doing it, but it will take us into somewhat deeper waters. Fortunately, there is a package enumerate by David Carlisle, which makes it easy. So if we want

just type the input as follows

The three basic steps in producing a printed document

using LaTeX are as follows:

egin{enumerate}[hspace{0.5cm}Step 1.]

item Prepare a source file with the extension “tex”

item Compile it with LaTeX to produce a “dvi” file

egin{enumerate}[i.]

item Use a previewer (such as “xdvi” on

extsf{X Window System}) to view the output

item Edit the source if needed

item Recompile

end{enumerate}

item Print the document using a “dvi” driver

(such as “dvips”)

end{enumerate}

As you can see, the labels Step 1, Step 2 and Step 3 are produced by the optional ar- gument Step 1 within square brackets immediately following the first egin{enumerate} command and the labels i, ii, iii for the second level enumeration are produced by the optional [i] following the second egin{enumerate}. So, what is hspace{0.5cm} doing in the first optional argument? It is to provide an indentation at the left margin of the first level items, which the enumerate environment does not produce by default.

1. The first item in the first level 2. the second item in the first level

(a) The first item in the second level (b) the second item in the second level i. The first item in the third level

ii. the second item in the third level

A. The first item in the fourth level B. the second item in the fourth level

The three basic steps in producing a printed document using LATEX are as follows:

Step 1. Prepare a source file with the extension tex Step 2. Compile it with LATEX to produce a dvi file

i. Use a previewer (such as xdvi on X Window System) to view the output ii. Edit the source if needed

iii. Recompile

Step3. Printthedocumentusingadvidriver(suchasdvips)

VI.4. WHEN ORDER MATTERS 53

We can add further embellishments. For example, if we want the labels in the first level of the above example to be in boldface, just change the optional argument [hspace{0.5cm} Step 1] to [hspace{0.5cm}fseries Step 1]. This produces:

Some care must be taken when we give options like this. Suppose we want to pro- duce something like this

If we give the option [hspace{1cm}(A1)] as in

Addition of numbers satisfies the following conditions:

egin{enumerate}[hspace{1cm}(A1)]

item It is commutative

item It is associative

item There is an additive identity

item Each number has an additive inverse

end{enumerate}

Then we get the (somewhat surprising) output

What happened? In the enumerate package, the option [A] signifies that we want the labels to be named in the sequence A, B, C,. . . ,Z (the upper case Roman alphabet) and the option [1] signifies we want them as 1,2,3,. . . (the Arabic numerals). Other signifiers are [a] for lowercase Roman letters, [I] for uppercase Roman numerals and [i] for lowercase Roman numerals. So, if we use any one of these in the optional argument with some other purpose in mind, then enclose it in braces. Thus the correct input to generate the above example is

Addition of numbers satisfies the following conditions

egin{enumerate}[hspace{1cm}({A}1)]

item It is commutative

item It is associative

item There is an additive identity

The three basic steps in producing a printed document using LATEX are as follows:

Step 1 Prepare a source file with the extension tex Step 2 Compile it with LATEX to produce a dvi file

(a) Use a previewer (such as xdvi on X Window System) to view the output (b) Edit the source if needed

(c) Recompile

Step3 Printthedocumentusingadvidriver(suchasdvips)

Addition of numbers satisfies the following conditions:

(A1) It is commutative

(A2) It is associative

(A3) There is an additive identity

(A4) Each number has an additive inverse

(11) It is commutative

(22) It is associative

(33) There is an additive identity

(44) Each number has an additive inverse

54 VI. DISPLAYED TEXT

item Each number has an additive inverse

end{enumerate}

with braces surrounding the A. (The mystery is not over, is it? How come we got 11, 22,. . . in the above example and not A1, B2,. . . ? Work it out yourselves!)

VI.5. DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS

There is a third type of list available off-the-shelf in LATEX which is used in typesetting

lists like this

Let us take stock of what we have learnt TEX A typesetting program

Emacs A text editor and also

a programming environment a mailer

and a lot else besides

AbiWord A word processor

This is produced by the description environment as shown below: Let us take stock of what we have learnt

egin{description}

item[TeX] A typesetting program

item[Emacs] A text editor and also

egin{description}

item a programming environment

item a mailer

item and a lot else besides

end{description}

item[AbiWord] A word processor

end{description}

Note that this environment does not produce on its own any labels for the various items, but only produces as labels, whatever we give inside square brackets immediately after each item. By default, the labels are typeset in boldface roman. Also, there is no indentation for the first level. As with the other list environments, these can be changed to suit your taste. For example, suppose we want labels to be typeset in sans-serif roman and also want an indentation even for the first level. The code below will do the trick (remember why we include the whole input within braces?):

enewcommand{descriptionlabel}[1]{hspace{1cm} extsf{#1}}

Let us take stock of what we have learnt

egin{description}

item[TeX] A typesetting program

item[Emacs] A text editor and also

egin{description}

item a programming environment

item and a lot else besides

end{description}

item[AbiWord] A word processor

end{description}

and we get the output

VI.5. DESCRIPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS 55

Let us take stock of what we have learnt TEX A typesetting program

Emacs A text editor and also

a programming environment and a lot else besides

AbiWord A word processor

Now is perhaps the time to talk about a general feature of all the three list environ- ments we have seen. In any of these, we can override the default labels (if any) produced by the environment by something of our own by including it within square brackets immediately after the item. Thus the input

The real number $l$ is the least upper bound of the

set $A$ if it satisfies the following conditions

egin{enumerate}

item[(1)] $l$ is an upper bound of $A$

item[(2)] if $u$ is an upper bound of $A$, then $lle u$

end{enumerate}

The second condition is equivalent to

egin{enumerate}

item[(2)$’$] If $a

> extbf{TeX} > A typesetting program

end{tabbing}

Let’s analyze it line by line. In the first line the first tab is put at a distance of 1 cm. from the left margin so that the text following it (‘AbiWord’ in boldface roman) starts from this point. The second tab is put at a distance of one quad (this is an inbuilt length specification in TEX roughly equal to one space) after the word ‘Abiword’ in boldface roman so that the text following it (‘A word processor’ in ordinary roman face) start from this point. The \[5pt] command signifies the end of the first line and also asks for a vertical space of 5 points between the first and the second lines. In the second line,

57

Let’s take stock of what we’ve learnt Abiword A word processor Emacs A text editor

TEX A typesetting program

Let’s take stock of what we’ve learnt

AbiWord Emacs TEX

A word processor

A text editor

A typesetting program

58 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

the first > command makes the text following it (‘Emacs’ in boldface roman) to start from the first tab (already set in the first line), namely, 1 cm. from the left margin. The second > line makes the text following it (‘A text editor’ in ordinary roman face) at the second tab already set, namely at a distance 1 cm plus the length of the word ‘AbiWord’ in boldface roman plus a quad. The third line follows suit. The picture below will make this clear.

tab 1 tab 2 ↓↓

AbiWord Emacs TEX

A word processor

A text editor

A typesetting program

One should be careful in setting tabs. For example to typeset

if you type

egin{tabbing}

extbf{TeX}quad= A typesetting program\[5pt]

extbf{Emacs}quad> A text editor\[5pt]

extbf{AbiWord}quad> A word processor

end{tabbing}

then you end up with the output

Do you see what happened? The first line set the first tab (the only tab in this example) at a distance of the length of the word ‘TEX’ in boldface roman plus a ‘quad’ from the left margin and the > command in the second line makes the text following to atart from this tab, which is right next to the word ‘Emacs’ in this line. the same thing happens in the third line, which is worse, since the position of the tab is at the ‘o’ of ’AbiWord’ and the next word ‘A word processor’ starts from this point, and overwrites the previous word. The correct way to obtain the output we want is to use a dummy line to mark the tabs, without actually typesetting that line. This is achieved by the kill command in the tabbing environment, as shown below

egin{tabbing}

extbf{AbiWord}quad= A word processorkill

extbf{TeX}quad > A typesetting program\[5pt]

TEX Emacs AbiWord

A typesetting program A text editor

A word processor

TEX A typesetting program EmacsA text editor AbiWoArdword processor

left margin

VII.1. KEEPING TABS 59

extbf{Emacs}quad > A text editor\[5pt]

extbf{AbiWord}quad> A word processor

end{tabbing}

New tabs, in addition to the ones already set by the first line (dummy or otherwise), can be set in any subsequent line. Thus the output

TEX Emacs

AbiWord

: A typesetting program : A text editor

a programming environment a mail reader

and a lot more besides

: A word processor

is obtained from the source

egin{tabbing}

extbf{AbiWord}quad= : = A word processorkill\

extbf{TeX}quad > : > A typesetting program\[5pt]

extbf{Emacs}quad > : > A text editor\[5pt]

> > quad= a programming environment\[5pt]

> > > a mail reader\[5pt]

> > > and a lot more besides\[5pt]

extbf{AbiWord}quad> : > A word processor

end{tabbing}

Here the first line sets two tabs and the fourth line sets a third tab after these two. All the three tabs can then be used in the subsequent lines. New tab positions which change the ones set up by the first line, can also be introduced in any line by the = command. Thus we can produce

Program : TEX

Author : Donald Knuth Manuals :

Title

The TEXBook

The Advanced TEX Book

Author

Donald Knuth David Salomon

Publisher

Addison-Wesley Springer-Verlag

by the input

egin{tabbing}

Programquad = : = TeX\[5pt]

Author > : > Donald Knuth\[5pt]

Manuals > :\

quad= The Advanced TeX Bookquad= David Salomonquad

= Springer-Verlagkill\

> extsf{Title} > extsf{Author} > extsf{Publisher}\[8pt]

60 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

>The TeX Book >Donald Knuth >Addison-Wesley\[5pt]

>The Advanced TeX Book >David Salomon >Springer-Verlag

end{tabbing}

Here the first line sets teo tabs and the next two lines use these tabs. The third line sets three new tabs which replace the original tab positions. The next three lines use these new tab positions.

VII.1.2. Pushing and popping

What if you change the tab positions and then want the original settings back? Here’s

where the command pair pushtabs … poptabs ia useful. Thus to typeset

Program : TEX

Author : Donald Knuth Manuals :

Title

The TEXBook

The Advanced TEX Book

Author

Donald Knuth David Salomon

Publisher

Addison-Wesley Springer-Verlag

Tutorial : http://tug.org.in/tutorial

we type

egin{tabbing}

Programquad = : = TeX\[5pt]

Author > : > Donald Knuth\[5pt]

Manuals > :\

pushtabs

quad= The Advanced TeX Book quad = David Salomon quad

= Springer-Verlagkill\

> extsf{Title} > extsf{Author} > extsf{Publisher}\[8pt]

>The TeX Book >Donald Knuth >Addison-Wesley\[5pt]

>The Advanced TeX Book >David Salomon > Springer-Verlag\[8pt]

poptabs

Tutorial > : > “http://tug.org.in/tutorial”

end{tabbing}

Here the first three lines follow a tabbing scheme, the next three lines follow another tabbing scheme and the last line reverts back to the original scheme. Here the pushtabs command stores the current tabbing scheme and removes it so that a new tabbing scheme can be set up; and the poptabs commands reactivates the original scheme. These com- mands can be nested.

VII.1.3. More commands

There are some more useful commands available in the tabbing environment. The + command given at the end of a line makes every subsequent line start at the first tab; with ++ at the end of a line, all subsequent lines start at the second tab and so on. The effect of each + can be neutralized by one – command at the end of a line. The

VII.1. KEEPING TABS 61

command < at the beginning of a line neutralizes the effect of one + command for that particular line.
The command ‘ (left quote) puts the text following flush right against the right margin. Naturally we cannot use a = or > after this in a line.

Another interesting command is ’ (right quote). Within the tabbing environment an input of the form left text’right text puts the right text at the current tab and the left text just before this tab with a bit of spacing (preassigned by the parameter abbingsep).

The example below illustrates all the tabbing commands we’ve discussed

egin{tabbing}

Row 1 Column 1hspace{2cm}

= Row 1 Column 2\[5pt]

> Row 2 Column 2hspace{1.5cm}=Row 2 Column 3++\[5pt]

Row 4 Column 2

< Row 5 Column 1 > Row 5 Column 2

Row 6 Column 2

> Row 7 Column 2

Row 3 Column 3-\[5pt]

>Row 4 Column 3\[5pt]

>Row 5 Column 3\[5pt]

>Row 6 Column 3-\[5pt]

>Row 7 Column 3\[5pt]

Row 7 Column 1

Row 8 Column 1

Row 9 Column 1

pushtabs

quad= Row 10 New Column 1hspace{2.5cm}= Row 10 New Column 2\[5pt]

> and’Row 9 Column 2\[5pt]

> Row 11 New Column 2 > Row 11 New Column 2\[5pt]

poptabs

Row 12 Old Column 1> Row 12 Old Column 2>Row 12 Old Column 3

end{tabbing}

It produces the following output

‘Right\[5pt]

Row 1 Column 1

Row 5 Column 1

Row 7 Column 1

Row 8 Column 1

Row 9 Column 1 and

Row 10 New Column 1

Row 11 New Column 2 Row 12 Old Column 1

Row 1 Column 2 Row 2 Column 2

Row 4 Column 2 Row 5 Column 2 Row 6 Column 2 Row 7 Column 2

Row 2 Column 3 Row 3 Column3 Row 4 Column 3 Row 5 Column 3 Row 6 Column 3 Row 7 Column 3

Row 9 Column 2

Row 10 New Column 2

Row 11 New Column 2

Row 12 Old Column 2 Row 12 Old Column 3

Right

Recall that the commands =. ‘ and ’ are used for various accents outside the tabbing environment. If these are needed within the tabbing environment, they can be produced with the commands a=. a‘ or a’ commands.

One final word. You might’ve noted in the examples above that we give a sort of

62 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

‘formatting’ to the sources also. This is not really necessary from the point of view of LATEX since the output of the last example is he same even if we input

egin{tabbing}

Row 1 Column 1hspace{2cm}=Row 1 Column 2\[5pt]

>Row 2 Column 2hspace{1.5cm}=Row 2 Column 3++\[5pt]

Row 3 Column3-\[5pt]

Row 4 Column 2>Row 4 Column 3\[5pt]

Row 6 Column 2>Row 6 Column 3-\[5pt]

Row 7 Column 1>Row 7 Column 2>Row 7 Column 3\[5pt]

Row 8 Column 1‘ extbf{Flush right}\[5pt]

Row 9 Column 1>and’Row 9 Column 2\[5pt]

pushtabs

Row 10 New Column 1hspace{2.5cm}=Row 10 New Column 2\[5pt]

Row 11 New Column 2>Row 11 New Column 2\[5pt]

poptabs

Row 12 Old Column 1>Row 12 Old Column 2>Row 12 Old Column 3

end{tabbing}

LATEX can make sense out of this, but we humans cannot. And such a jumble makes editing a hopeless task. The moral? Keep the source (humanly) readable.

VII.2. TABLES

Another way to format text into columns and rows is to use the tabular environment.

Let’s see it in action by means of an example.

The table below shows the sizes of the planets of our solar system.

As can be seen, Pluto is the smallest and Jupiter the largest

Planet

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Diameter(km)

4878

12104

12756

6794

142984

120536

51118

49532

2274

Now look at the source of this output

The table below shows the sizes of the planets of our solar system.

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{lr}

Planet & Diameter(km)\[5pt]

Mercury & 4878\

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter & 142984\

Saturn & 120536\

& 12104\

& 12756\

& 6794\

Uranus & 51118\

Neptune & 49532\

Pluto & 2274

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter & 142984\

Saturn & 120536\

Uranus & 51118\

Neptune & 49532\

Pluto & 2274

end{tabular}

end{center}

produces the output below

& 12104\

& 12756\

& 6794\

VII.2. TABLES 63

end{tabular}

end{center}

As can be seen, Pluto is the smallest and Jupiter the largest

The egin{center} … end{center} commands centralize the table. The table itself is produced by the egin{tabular} …end{tabular} commands. The {lr} specification immediately after the egin{tabular} indicates there are two columns in the table with the entries in the first column aligned on the left and the entries in the second column aligned on the right. The entries in each column are separated by the & symbol and the terminatio of each row is signalled by the \ symbol. The \[5pt] after the first row specifies as usual, an additional vertical space of 5 points after this row in the output.

In addition to the column specifiers l and r we also have a specifier c which makes the entries in the corresponding column centrally aligned. For example the input

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{cr}

Planet & Diameter(km)\[5pt]

Mercury & 4878\

Planet

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Diameter(km)

4878

12104

12756

6794

142984

120536

51118

49532

2274

There’s yet another column specifier p which allows us to set column entries in a box of specified width (technically a “parbox”—see Chapter X). Suppose you want something like this

64 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

Planet

Mercury Venus

Earth

Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

Features

Lunar like crust, crustal faulting, small magnetic fields.

Shrouded in clouds, undulating surface with highlands, plains, lowlands and craters.

Ocens of water filling lowlands between continents, unique in supporting life, magnetic field.

Cratered uplands, lowland plains, volcanic regions.

Covered by clouds, dark ring of dust, magnetic field.

Several cloud layers, magnetic field, thousands of rings.

Layers of cloud and mist, magentic field, some rings.

Unable to detect from earth.

Unable to detect from earth

It is produced from the input

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{lp{.8linewidth}}

Planet & Features\[5pt]

Mercury & Lunar like crust, crustal faulting, small magnetic

fields.\

& Shrouded in clouds, undulating surface with highlands,

plains, lowlands and craters.\

& Ocens of water filling lowlands between continents,

unique in supporting life, magnetic field.\

Mars

Jupiter & Covered by clouds, dark ring of dust, magnetic field.\

Saturn & Several cloud layers, magnetic field, thousands

of rings.\

Uranus & Layers of cloud and mist, magentic field, some rings.\

Neptune & Unable to detect from earth.\

Pluto & Unable to detect from earth

end{tabular}

end{center}

Here the specification p{6cm} shows that in a “paragraph box” of width 6 cm. In a p-type column, if a

aggedright or centering is given, then we can induce explicit line breaks within that column by the \ command. If such commands are used in the last column of a row, then the command abularnewline should be used to terminate that row as in this example:

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{lp{6cm}}

Planet & Features abularnewline[8pt]

Mercury &

aggedright Lunar like crust\

Crustal faulting\

Venus Earth

Venus Earth

Mars

Small magnetic fiels abularnewline[3pt]

&

aggedright Shrouded in clouds\

Undulating surface abularnewline[3pt]

&

aggedright Ocens of water\

Unique in supporting life\

Magnetic field abularnewline[3pt]

&

aggedright Cratered uplands\

& Cratered uplands, lowland plains, volcanic regions.\

VII.2. TABLES 65

Lowland plains\

Volcanic regions abularnewline[3pt]

Jupiter &

aggedright Covered by clouds\

Dark ring of dust\

Magnetic field abularnewline[3pt]

Saturn &

aggedright Several cloud layers Magnetic field\

Thousands of rings abularnewline[3pt]

Uranus &

aggedright Layers of cloud and mist\

Neptune &

Pluto &

end{tabular}

end{center}

This produces the output below

Magentic field\

Some rings abularnewline[3pt]

Unable to detect

from earth abularnewline[3pt]

Unable to detect

from earth abularnewline[3pt]

Planet Mercury

Venus Earth

Mars

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune Pluto

Features

Lunar like crust Crustal faulting Small magnetic fiels

Shrouded in clouds Undulating surface

Ocens of water

Unique in supporting life Magnetic field

Cratered uplands Lowland plains Volcanic regions

Covered by clouds Dark ring of dust Magnetic field

Several cloud layers Magnetic field Thousands of rings

Layers of cloud and mist Magentic field

Some rings

Unable to detect from earth Unable to detect from earth

Note that the last two lines don’t need a

aggedright command, since there are no explicit linebreaks in them.

A table usually contains horizonntal and vertical lines separating the rows and columns. These can also be produced in the tabular environment. For example, the first table we saw above can be typeset as

66 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

Planet

Diameter(km)

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

4878

12104

12756

6794

142984

120536

51118

49532

2274

by the input

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{|l|r|}

hline

Planet & Diameter(km)\

hline

Mercury & 4878\

…………..

Pluto & 2274\

hline

end{tabular}

end{center}

Do you see what produced the vertical and horizontal lines? Instead of the specification {lr} used earlier, we now have {|l|r|} The character | causes a vertical line to be drawn at the specified location, running down the entire height of the table. (Two |’s in succes- sion produce a double vertical lines.) An hline command after a row draws a horizontal line after that row, running along the entire width of the table. (Again, two hline’s in succession producea double horizontal line.) Note also that because of the last hline , we should give a line termination command \ at the end of the last row also.

Now suppose we want to produce something like this

Planet Distance from sun (km)

Maximum

Mercury 69400000 Venus 109000000 Earth 152600000 Mars 249200000 Jupiter 817400000 Saturn 1512000000 Uranus 3011000000

Minimum

46800000

107600000

147400000

207300000

741600000

1346000000

2740000000

Here, there are three columns and the entry Distance from the sun (km) is to span the the last two columns below it. The command multicolumn does the trick as shown below

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{lrr}

Planet & multicolumn{2}{c|}{Distance from sun (km)}\

& Maximum & Minimum\

VII.2. TABLES 67

Mercury & 69400000 & 46800000\

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter & 817400000 & 741600000\

Saturn & 1512000000 & 1346000000\

Uranus & 3011000000 & 2740000000\

& 109000000 & 107600000\

& 152600000 & 147400000\

& 249200000 & 207300000\

end{tabular}

end{center}

The entry multicolumn{2}{c}{Distance from sun (km)} indicates that the item within the last set of braces is to span two columns as specified by the 2 within the first set of braces. The entry c within the second set of bracesindicates that this text is to be centered within the column. Thus the general form of the command is

multicolumn{num}{pos}}item}

where num is the number of columns to be spanned, pos is the position of the item within the column and item is the text of the item. Note also that the input for the second row starts with an & character. This is because there is no entry in the first column of the second row.

Now what if you want

Planet

Distance from sun (km)

Maximum

Minimum

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

69400000

109000000

152600000

249200000

817400000

1512000000

3011000000

4543000000

7346000000

46800000

107600000

147400000

207300000

741600000

1346000000

2740000000

4466000000

4461000000

Here the first few lines and the last lines of the input are as below (the other lines are the same as in the previous example).

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{|l|r|r|}

hline

Planet & multicolumn{2}{c|}{Distance from sun (km)}\

cline{2-3}

& Maximum & Minimum\

hline

…………………………..

hline

end{tabular}

end{center}

Note that the position specifier in the multicolumn command here is c|. This has to do with the way the environment splits the column specification into various columns.

68 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

For example, the specification |l|r|r| in this exaple is split into |l|, r| and r| and the multicolumn{2} command resets the last two columns. In particular, the final | gets reset and we’ll have to explicitly supply it in the position specification of the multicolumn command as c|.

Note also the command cline{2-3} after the first row. This draws a horizontal line from the second to the third column. In general the command cline{i-j} draws a horizontal line from the ith column to the jth column.

Another feature of the multicolumn command is that with multicolumn{1} we can override the position specification of any column set at the beginning of the environment. For example, consider the input below

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{|l|r|r|}

hline

& multicolumn{2}{p{3.5cm}|}%

{centering Distance from sun \ (million km)}\

cline{2-3}

multicolumn{1}{|c|}{Planet}

& multicolumn{1}{c|}{Maximum}

& multicolumn{1}{c|}{Minimum}\

hline

Mercury & 69.4 & 46.8\

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter & 817.4 & 741.6\

Saturn & 1512.0 & 1346.0\

Uranus & 3011.0 & 2740.0\

Neptune & 4543.0 & 4466.0\

Pluto & 7346.0 & 4461.0\

hline

end{tabular}

end{center}

It produces the output below

& 109.0 & 107.6\

& 152.6 & 147.4\

& 249.2 & 207.3\

Planet

Distance from sun (million km)

Maximum

Minimum

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

69.4 109.0 152.6 249.2 817.4

1512.0 3011.0 4543.0 7346.0

46.8 107.6 147.4 207.3 741.6

1346.0 2740.0 4466.0 4461.0

Note that even though centering is used in the last column of the first row, no abularnewline is required to terminate this row, since the scope of the centering is limited by the multicolumn.

VII.2. TABLES 69

By the way, do you feel that the tables we’ve been produced look a bit cramped? A bit crowded vertically? Well, you can create a bit more room between rows by redefining the value of arraystretch. By default, it’s value is 1 and if you set it to a number k, then the interrow space is increased k-fold. Thus the input of the last example with the command

enewcommand{arraystretch}{1.2} after the egin{center} produces

Planet

Distance from sun (million km)

Maximum

Minimum

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

69.4 109.0 152.6 249.2 817.4

1512.0 3011.0 4543.0 7346.0

46.8 107.6 147.4 207.3 741.6

1346.0 2740.0 4466.0 4461.0

Next let’s see how we produce a table like the one below

Height (cm)

Ideal weight (kg)

155

160

165

170

175

180

185

190

53.5–64 56–67 59–71

62.5–75.5 66–79

70–83.5 71.5–86.5 78–92.5

Here we want all the dashes in the second column to be vertically aligned, so that we must set them in a separate column; but then there should be no space between the numbers and the dashes connecting them. In such cases we can use the @ command in the column specification as below

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{|c|r@{–}l|}

hline

Height & multicolumn{2}{c|}{Ideal weight}\

(cm) & multicolumn{2}{c|}{(kg)}\

hline

155 & 53.5 & 64\

160 & 56 & 67\

……………

190 & 78 & 92.5\

70

VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

hline

end{tabular}

end{center}

Here the specification r@{–}l indicates that there should be a right aligned column and a left aligned column with a – in between each pair of entries in these columns without the intercolumn space the tabular environment leaves by default between every pair of columns. Note that this incidently saves us the trouble of repeatedly typing –. You can also add some space producing commands within the braces after the @ command to produce that much space between the columns on either side of it.

VII.2.1. Enhancementstothetabular

There are many packages which provide further facilities in forming tables. We’ll discuss

a couple of such packages here.

VII.2.2. The array package Look at the tables below

Planet

Mean distance from sun (km)

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

58100000

108300000

150000000

228250000

779500000

1429000000

2439000000

4504500000

5903500000

Planet

Mean distance from sun

( km)

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

58100000

108300000

150000000

228250000

779500000

1429000000

2439000000

4504500000

5903500000

The one on the right looks nicer, doesn’t it? It was produced using the column specifier m available in the array package. To produce this table, we must first load the array package by the ususl usepackage{array} in the preamble and then type

egin{tabular}{|l|r|}

hline

multicolumn{1}{|m{1.5cm}|}{centering Planet}

&multicolumn{1}{m{2.3cm}|}%

{centering Mean distance from sun \ (km)}\

hline

Mercury & 58100000\

……………….

Pluto & 5903500000\

hline

end{tabular}

The m{wd} specifier produces a column of width wd just like the p specifier, but with the text aligned vertically in the middle unlike the p specifier which aligns the text with the topline. (The table on the left, incidently, was produced by the same input as above but with p instead of m).

VII.2. TABLES 71

Another interesting feature of the array package is the >{decl} command which can be used before a column specifier. It inserts decl directly in front of the column. For example look at the input below

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{|>{fseries}l|r|}

hline

multicolumn{1}{|m{1.5cm}|}{centering Planet}

&multicolumn{1}{m{2.3cm}|}%

{centering Mean distance from sun \ (km)}\

hline

Mercury & 58100000\

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter & 779500000\

Saturn & 1429000000\

Uranus & 2439000000\

Neptune & 4504500000\

Pluto & 5903500000\

hline

end{tabular}

end{center}

which produces the output

& 108300000\

& 150000000\

& 228250000\

Planet

Mean distance from sun (km)

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

58100000

108300000

150000000

228250000

779500000

1429000000

2439000000

4504500000

5903500000

The array package also has a ! command which works just like the @ command, but whch does not suppress the intercolumn space.

VII.2.3. The multirow package

Look again at the table in 68. Wouldn’t it be nice if the entry “Planet” in the first column is vertically aligned with the center of the two rows in the next column as below?

72 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

Planet

Distance from sun (million km)

Maximum

Minimum

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

69.4 109.0 152.6 249.2 817.4

1512.0 3011.0 4543.0 7346.0

46.8 107.6 147.4 207.3 741.6

1346.0 2740.0 4466.0 4461.0

The package multirow is what we need to do this painlessly. It has a command

multirow{num}{wd}{item}

where num is the number of rows to be spanned, wd is the width of this column and item is the text of the item in this column. This can be used as in the following example

egin{center}

egin{tabular}{|l|r|r|}

hline

multirow{3}{1.5cm}{Planet}

& multicolumn{2}{p{3.5cm}|}%

{centering Distance from sun \ (million km)}\

cline{2-3}

& multicolumn{1}{c|}{Maximum}

& multicolumn{1}{c|}{Minimum}\

Mercury & 69.4 & 46.8\

hline

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter & 817.4 & 741.6\

Saturn & 1512.0 & 1346.0\

Uranus & 3011.0 & 2740.0\

Neptune & 4543.0 & 4466.0\

Pluto & 7346.0 & 4461.0\

hline

end{tabular}

end{center}

But this code does not produce the table above, but only

& 109.0 & 107.6\

& 152.6 & 147.4\

& 249.2 & 207.3\

VII.2. TABLES 73

Planet

Distance from sun (million km)

Maximum

Minimum

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

69.4 109.0 152.6 249.2 817.4

1512.0 3011.0 4543.0 7346.0

46.8 107.6 147.4 207.3 741.6

1346.0 2740.0 4466.0 4461.0

The trouble is that though the entry “Planet” is vertically centered in its column, it is not horizontally centered. The horizontal alignment is controlled by the command multirowsetup and this is by default st to

aggedright. So all that is needed to get the beautiful table seen at the beginning of this section is to add the line

enewcommand{multirowsetup}{centering}

at the beginning of the code above.

VII.2.4. tabbing vs. tabular

Let’s take a quick look at the pros and cons of the tabbing and tabular environments.

• The tabbing environment can be typeset only as a separate paragraph, while the tabular environment can be placed anywhere in text, even inside Mathematics.

• The tabbing environment can span multiple pages, but the tabular environment cannot.

• tabbing environments cannot be nested, while tabular environments can be nested to any number of levels.

VII.2.5. Multipage tables—The package longtable

As we have noted, we cannot create table spanning more than one page using the tabular environment. But the package longtable by David Carlisle can do this and it has quite a

few other tricks also. To use this package, load it as usual with the command usepackage{longtable} in the preamble and then to produce a no-frills “longtable” just use the commands egin{longtable} … end{longtable} instead of the egin{tabular} … end{tabular} commands. We can use footnotes and the

ewpage commands inside the longtable en-

vironment. If the package array is also loaded, its extra features can be used.

Apart from this, this package has provisions to specify at the start of the input the following items

• the rows that should appear at the top of the table; the input for these to be termi- nated by endfirsthead

• the rows that should appear in every page after the first, such input terminated by endhead

• those at the bottom of every page, the input terminated by endfoot

74 VII. ROWS AND COLUMNS

• those rows at the very end of the table, terminated by endlastfoot These are illustrated in the (long!) table below.

Science and Technology in the Twentieth Century

Year

Event

1900 1901

1903

1905

1911

1912

1916

1920

1926

1928

1933

1934

1938

1940

1942

1946

1947

1951 1953 1956 1957 1959 ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 1961 1966 1967 1968 1969 1972

Max Planck proposes quantum theory

Publication of Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams Discovery of principal blood groups

Guglielmo Marconi transmits wireless signals across the atlantic Wright brothers make their first flight

Albert Einstein presents Special Theory of Relativity

Ernest Rutherford proposes theory of atomic structure

Victor Hess discovers cosmic rays

Albert Einstein presents general Theory of Relativity

Radio broadcasting begins

John Logie Baird demonstrates television

Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin

Discovery of polythene

Discovery of nuclear fission

Discovery of nylon

Plutonium obtained by bombardment of uranium

Construction of first nuclear reactor

Construction of first electronic digital computer

First supersonic flight

Invention of the transistor

Nuclear power stations introduced

James Watson and Francis Crick show DNS molecule structure Contraceptive pill introduced

Launch of the first space satellite (Sputnik 1)

First photograph of the dark side of the moon (Luna 3) ·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

·········

Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space (Vostok 1)

First lunar soft landing (Luna 9)

Discovery of pulsars

First manned lunar orbit (Apollo 8)

First man on moon (Neil Armstrong)

Pocket calculator introduced

continued on the next page

VII.2. TABLES 75

Science and Technology in the Twentieth Century (continued)

Source : The Cambrige Factfinder Part of the code to produce this is given below.

enewcommand{arraystretch}{1.2}

egin{longtable}{|c|l|}

multicolumn{2}{c}%

{ extbf{Science and Technology in the Twentieth Century}}\[5pt]

hline

multicolumn{1}{|c|}{sffamily Year}

&multicolumn{1}{|c|}{sffamily Event}\

hline

endfirsthead

multicolumn{2}{c}%

{ extbf{Science and Technology in the Twentieth Century}

( extit{continued})}\[5pt]

hline

multicolumn{1}{|c|}{sffamily Year}

&multicolumn{1}{|c|}{sffamily Event}\

hline

endhead

hline

multicolumn{2}{r}{smallitshape continued on the next page}\

endfoot

hline

multicolumn{2}{r}{small Source,:,itshape The Cambrige Factfinder}

endlastfoot

1900 & Max Planck proposes quantum theory\

……………………………………….

2000 & Decoding of 90\% of human genome completed\

hline

end{longtable}

VII.2.6. And that’s not all!

There are many more packages which help to produce tables of various requirements. Be sure to check out the pakages tabularx, delarray, dcolumn and hhline.

Year

Event

1974

1977

1983

1986

1997

2000

First ‘test-tube babies’

Launch of Voyager missions to outer spce

IBM personal computer launched

Hailey’s comet intercepted

Cloning of “Dolly” the sheep

Decoding of 90% of human genome completed

76

TUTORIAL VIII

TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

Donal Knuth created TEX primarily to typeset Mathematics beautifully. LATEX includes all the capabilities of TEX in Mathematics typesetting, sometimes with easier user interfaces. Then there are packages like amsmath which enhance and refine these interfaces.

VIII.1. THE BASICS

A mathematical expression occurring in running text (called in-text math) is produced by

enclosing it between dollar signs. Thus to produce

we type

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane

is of the form $ax+by+c=0$, where $a$, $b$, $c$ are constants.

Some comments are in order. First note that the text within dollars is typeset in italic (actually math italic). Again, even though we did not leave any spaces within ax+by+c=0, TEX leaves spaces on either side of the addition signs and the equality sign. On the other hand, even if we type$ax + by + c = 0$, the output would be the same: ax+by+c = 0. The moral? TEX has its own spacing rules in math mode.

To see another instance of this, change the last part of the code above to read

… where $a, b, c$ are constants.

Saves some typing, does not it? But look at the output.

Do you see the difference? There are no spaces after the commas, though we had such spaces in the output. So TEX swallows spaces in math mode (you can not save dollars that way!).

Incidentally, dollar signs are TEX way of distinguishing Mathematical text. LATEX has other ways also of doing it, using ( … ) or egin{math} … end{math}. Thus either of the inputs shown below also produces the same output as above.

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of

the form (ax+by+c=0), where (a), (b), (c) are constants.

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is

of the form egin{math}ax+by+c=0end{math}, where egin{math} a

end{math}, egin{math} b end{math}, egin{math} c end{math} are

constants.

77

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b, c are constants.

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b, c are constants.

78 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

Now suppose we want to display the equation in the above output as in

This can be done by changing the input as follows:

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is

of the form

$$

ax+by+c=0

$$

where $a$, $b$, $c$ are constants.

Again $$ … $$ is the TEX way of producing displayed math. LATEX has the constructs [ … ] or egin{displaymath} … end{displaymath} also to do this.

VIII.1.1. Superscripts and subscripts Look at the text below

This is produced by the input

In the seventeenth century, Fermat conjectured that if $n>2$, then

there are no integers $x$, $y$, $z$ for which

$$

xˆn+yˆn=zˆn.

$$

This was proved in 1994 by Andrew Wiles.

This shows that superscripts (mathematicians call them exponents) are produced by the ˆ symbol. If the superscript is more than one character long, we must be careful to group these characters properly. Thus to produce

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form

where a, b, c are constants.

ax + by + c = 0

In the seventeenth century, Fermat conjectured that if n > 2, then there are no integers x, y, z for which

xn + yn = zn. This was proved in 1994 by Andrew Wiles.

It is easily seen that (xm)n = xmn. we must type

It is easily seen that $(xˆm)ˆn=xˆ{mn}$.

Instead of $xˆ{mn}$, if we type $xˆmn$ we end up with in the output.

instead of the intended

We can have superscripts of superscripts (and mathematicians do need them). For example,

Numbers of the form 22n + 1, where n is a natural number, are called Fermat numbers. is produced by

xmn

xmn

VIII.1. THE BASICS 79

Numbers of the form $2ˆ{2ˆn}+1$, where $n$ is a natural number, are

called Fermat numbers.

Note the grouping of superscripts. (What happens if you type $2ˆ2ˆn+1$ or ${2ˆ2}ˆn$?) Now let us see how subscripts (mathematicians call them subscripts) are produced.

To get

we must type

The sequence $(x_n)$ defined by

$$

x_1=1,quad x_2=1,quad x_n=x_{n-1}+x_{n-2};;(n>2)

$$

is called the Fibonacci sequence.

Thus subscripts are produced by the _ character. Note how we insert spaces by the quad command. (The command ; in math mode produces what is known as a “thickspace”.) Subscripts of subscripts can be produced as in the case of superscripts (with appropriate grouping).

We can also have superscripts and subscripts together. Thus

If the sequence (xn) converges to a, then the sequence (x2n) converges to a2 is produced by

If the sequence $(x_n)$ converges to $a$, then the sequence

$(x_nˆ2)$ converges to $aˆ2$

Again, we must be careful about the grouping (or the lack of it) when typesetting superscripts and subscripts together. The following inputs and the corresponding outputs make the point.

$$

x_mˆnqquad xˆn_mqquad {x_m}ˆnqquad {xˆn}_m

$$

x nm x nm x m n x n m

(This has to do with the way TEX works, producing “boxes” to fit the output characters. The box for xnm is like while the box for xmn is .

VIII.1.2. Roots

Square roots are produced by the sqrt argument. Thus $sqrt{2}$ produces

command has an optional argument to produce other roots. Thus

is produced by

The sequence (xn) defined by

x1 =1, x2 =1, xn =xn−1 +xn−2 (n>2)

is called the Fibonacci sequence.

xnm

xm

n

√

2. This

Which is greater 4 5 or 5 4?

√√

80 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

Which is greater $sqrt[4]{5}$ or $sqrt[5]{4}$?

The horizontal line above the root (called vinculum by mathematicians of yore) elon-

√

x + y.

gates to accommodate the enclosed text. For example, $sqrt{x+y}$ produces Also, you can produce nested roots as in

by typing

The sequence

$$

2sqrt{2},,quad 2ˆ2sqrt{2-sqrt{2}},,quad 2ˆ3

sqrt{2-sqrt{2+sqrt{2}}},,quad 2ˆ4sqrt{2-

sqrt{2+sqrt{2+sqrt{2+sqrt{2}}}}},,;ldots

$$

converge to $pi$.

The sequence

√√√√

2 2, 22 2− 2, 23 2− 2+ 2, 24 2− 2+ 2+ 2+ 2,…

converge to π.

The ldots command above produces . . ., the three dots indicating indefinite contin- uation, called ellipsis (more about them later). The command , produces a “thinspace” (as opposed to a thickspace produced by ; , seen earlier). Why all this thin and thick spaces in the above input? Remove them and see the difference. (A tastefully applied thinspace is what makes a mathematical expression typeset in TEX really beautiful.)

The symbol π in the output produced by $pi$ maybe familiar from high school mathematics. It is a Greek letter named “pi”. Mathematicians often use letters of the Greek alphabet ((which even otherwise is Greek to many) and a multitude of other sym- bols in their work. A list of available symbols in LATEX is given at the end of this chapter.

VIII.1.3. Mathematical symbols

In the list at the end of this chapter, note that certain symbols are marked to be not avail- able in native LATEX, but only in certain packages. We will discuss some such packages later. Another thing about the list is that they are categorized into classes such as “Bi- nary Relations”, “Operators”, “Functions” and so on. This is not merely a matter of convenience.

We have noted that TEX leaves some additional spaces around “binary operators” such as + and −. The same is true for any symbol classified as a binary operator. For example, consider the following

From the list of symbols, we see that ◦ is produced by circ and this is classified as a binary operator, so that we can produce this by

For real numbers $x$ and $y$, define an operation $circ$ by

$$

For real numbers x and y, define an operation ◦ by

x ◦ y = x + y − xy

This operation is associative.

VIII.2. CUSTOM COMMANDS 81

xcirc y = x+y-xy

$$

This operation is associative.

Note the spaces surrounding the ◦ symbol in the output. On the other hand suppose you want

The list of symbols show that the symbol is produced by Box but that it is avail- able only in the package latexsym or amssymb. So if we load one of these using the usepackage command and then type

For real numbers $x$ and $y$, define an operation $Box$ by

$$

xBox y = xˆ2+yˆ2

$$

you will only get

Notice the difference? There are no spaces around ; this is because, this symbol is not by default defined as a binary operator. (Note that it is classified under “Miscel- laneous”.) But we can ask TEX to consider this symbol as a binary operator by the command mathbin before Box as in

For real numbers $x$ and $y$, define an operation $Box$ by

$$

xmathbinBox y=xˆ2+yˆ2

$$

and this will produce the output shown first.

This holds for “Relations” also. TEX leaves some space around “Relation” symbols

and we can instruct TEX to consider any symbol as a relation by the command mathrel. Thus we can produce

Define the relation ρ on the set of real numbers by x ρ y iff x − y is a rational number.

by typing

Define the relation $

ho$ on the set of real numbers by

$xmathrel

ho y$ iff $x-y$ is a rational number.

(See what happens if you remove the mathrel command.) VIII.2. CUSTOM COMMANDS

We have seen that LATEX produces mathematics (and many other things as well) by means of “commands”. The interesting thing is that we can build our own commands using the ones available. For example, suppose that t the expression (x1, x2, . . . , xn) occurs frequently in a document. If we now write

For real numbers x and y, define an operation by xy=x2 +y2

For real numbers x and y, define an operation by xy=x2 +y2

82 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

ewcommand{vect}{(x_1,x_2,dots,x_n)}

Then we can type $vect$ anywhere after wards to produce (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) as in We often write $x$ to denote the vector $vect$.

to get

We often write x to denote the vector (x1,x2,…,xn).

(By the way, the best place to keep such “newcommands” is the preamble, so that you can use them anywhere in the document. Also, it will be easier to change the commands, if the need arises).

OK, we can now produce (x1, x2, . . . , xn) with $vect$, but how about (y1, y2, . . . , yn) or (z1, z2, . . . , zn)? Do we have to define newcommands for each of these? Not at all. We can also define commands with variable arguments also. Thus if we change our definition of vect to

ewcommand{vect}[1]{(#1_1,#1_2,dots,#1_n)}

Then we can use $vect{x}$ to produce (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) and $vect{a}$ to produce (a1,a2,…,an) and so on.

The form of this definition calls for some comments. The [1] in the

ewcommand above indicates that the command is to have one (variable) argument. What about the #1? Before producing the output, each occurrence of #1 will be replaced by the (single) argument we supply to vect in the input. For example, the input $vect{a}$ will be changed to $(a_1,a_2,dots,a_n)$ at some stage of the compilation.

We can also define commands with more than one argument (the maximum number is 9). Thus for example, if the document contains not only (x1, x2, . . . , xn), (y1, y2, . . . , yn) and so on, but (x1,x2,…,xm), (y1,y2,…,yp) also, then we can change our definition of vect to

ewcommand{vect}[2]{(#1_1,#1_2,dotsc,#1_#2)}

so that we can use $vect{x}{n}$ to produce (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) and $vect{a}{p}$ to pro-

duce (a1,a2,…,ap).

VIII.3. MORE ON MATHEMATICS

There are some many other features of typesetting math in LATEX, but these have better implementations in the package amsmath which has some additional features as well. So, for the rest of the chapter the discussion will be with reference to this package and some allied ones. Thus all discussion below is under the assumption that the package amsmath has been loaded with the command usepackage{amsmath}.

VIII.3.1. Single equations

In addition to the LATEX commands for displaying math as discussed earlier, the ams- math also provides the egin{equation*} … end{equation*} construct. Thus with this package loaded, the output

can also be produced by

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form

where a, b, c are constants.

ax + by + c = 0

VIII.3. MORE ON MATHEMATICS 83

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is

of the form

egin{equation*}

ax+by+c=0

end{equation*}

where $a$, $b$, $c$ are constants.

Why the * after equation? Suppose we try it without the * as

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form

egin{equation}

ax+by+c=0

end{equation}

where $a$, $b$, $c$ are constants.

we get

This provides the equation with a number. We will discuss equation numbering in some more detail later on. For the time being, we just note that for any environment name with a star we discuss here, the unstarred version provides the output with numbers.

Ordinary text can be inserted inside an equation using the ext command. Thus we can get

from

Thus for all real numbers $x$ we have

egin{equation*}

xle|x|quad ext{and}quad xge|x|

end{equation*}

and so

egin{equation*}

xle|x|quad ext{for all $x$ in $R$}.

end{equation*}

Note the use of dollar signs in the second ext above to produce mathematical symbols within ext.

Sometimes a single equation maybe too long to fit into one line (or sometimes even two lines). Look at the one below:

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form (VIII.1) ax + by + c = 0

where a, b, c are constants.

Thus for all real numbers x we have

and so

x≤|x| and x≥|x| x≤|x| forallxinR.

(a+b+c+d+e)2 =a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 +e2 +2ab+2ac+2ad+2ae+2bc+2bd+2be+2cd+2ce+2de

84 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

This is produced by the environment multline* (note the spelling carefully—it is not mult line),asshownbelow.

egin{multline*}

(a+b+c+d+e)ˆ2=aˆ2+bˆ2+cˆ2+dˆ2+eˆ2\

+2ab+2ac+2ad+2ae+2bc+2bd+2be+2cd+2ce+2de

end{multline*}

multline can be used for equations requiring more than two lines, but without tweaking, the results are not very satisfactory. For example, the input

egin{multline*}

(a+b+c+d+e+f)ˆ2=aˆ2+bˆ2+cˆ2+dˆ2+eˆ2+fˆ2\

+2ab+2ac+2ad+2ae+2af\

+2bc+2bd+2be+2bf\

+2cd+2ce+2cf\

+2de+2df\

+2ef

end{multline*}

produces

By default, the multline environment places the first line flush left, the last line flush right (except for some indentation) and the lines in between, centered within the display.

A better way to typeset the above multiline (not multline) equation is as follows.

This is done using the split environment as shown below. egin{equation*}

egin{split}

(a+b+c+d+e+f)ˆ2 & = aˆ2+bˆ2+cˆ2+dˆ2+eˆ2+fˆ2\

i

(a+b+c+d+e+ f)2 =a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 +e2 + f2 +2ab+2ac+2ad+2ae+2af

+2bc+2bd+2be+2bf +2cd+2ce+2cf +2de+2df

+2ef

(a+b+c+d+e+ f)2 =a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 +e2 + f2 +2ab+2ac+2ad+2ae+2af

+2bc+2bd+2be+2bf +2cd+2ce+2cf +2de+2df

+2ef

end{split}

end{equation*}

&quad +2ab+2ac+2ad+2ae+2af\

&quad +2bc+2bd+2be+2bf\

&quad +2cd+2ce+2cf\

&quad +2de+2df\

&quad +2ef

VIII.3. MORE ON MATHEMATICS 85

Some comments seems to be in order. First note that the split environment cannot be used independently, but only inside some equation structure such as equation (and others we will soon see). Unlike multline, the split environment provides for alignment among the “split” lines (using the & character, as in tabular). Thus in the above example, all the + signs are aligned and these in turn are aligned with a point a quad to the right of the = sign. It is also useful when the equation contains multiple equalities as in

which is produced by

egin{equation*}

egin{split}

(a+b)ˆ2 & = (a+b)(a+b)\

& = aˆ2+ab+ba+bˆ2\

& = aˆ2+2ab+bˆ2

end{split}

end{equation*}

VIII.3.2. Groups of equations

A group of displayed equations can be typeset in a single go using the gather environ-

ment. For example,

can be produced by

egin{gather*}

(a,b)+(c,d)=(a+c,b+d)\

(a,b)(c,d)=(ac-bd,ad+bc)

end{gather*}

Now when several equations are to be considered one unit, the logically correct way of typesetting them is with some alignment (and it is perhaps easier on the eye too). For example,

This is obtained by using the align* environment as shown below Thus $x$, $y$ and $z$ satisfy the equations egin{align*}

x+y-z & = 1\

x-y+z & = 1

end{align*}

(a+b)2 =(a+b)(a+b) =a2 +ab+ba+b2

=a2 +2ab+b2

(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d) (a, b)(c, d) = (ac − bd, ad + bc)

Thus x, y and z satisfy the equations

x+y−z=1 x−y+z=1

86 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

We can add a short piece of text between the equations, without disturbing the alignment, using the intertext command. For example, the output

is produced by

Thus $x$, $y$ and $z$ satisfy the equations

egin{align*}

x+y-z & = 1\

x-y+z & = 1\

intertext{and by hypothesis}

x+y+z & =1

end{align*}

We can also set multiple ‘columns’ of aligned equations side by side as in

All that it needs are extra &’s to separate the columns as can be sen from the input

Compare the following sets of equations

egin{align*}

cosˆ2x+sinˆ2x & = 1 & coshˆ2x-sinhˆ2x & = 1\

cosˆ2x-sinˆ2x & = cos 2x & coshˆ2x+sinhˆ2x & = cosh 2x

end{align*}

We can also adjust the horizontal space between the equation columns. For example,

Compare the sets of equations

egin{align*}

cosˆ2x+sinˆ2x & = 1 &qquad coshˆ2x-sinhˆ2x & = 1\

cosˆ2x-sinˆ2x & = cos 2x &qquad coshˆ2x+sinhˆ2x & = cosh 2x

end{align*}

gives

Perhaps a nicer way of typesetting the above is

Thus x, y and z satisfy the equations

and by hypothesis

x+y−z=1 x−y+z=1

x+y+z=1

Compare the following sets of equations

cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1

cos2 x − sin2 x = cos 2x cosh2 x + sinh2 x = cosh 2x

Compare the sets of equations

cos2 x + sin2 x = 1 cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1

cos2 x − sin2 x = cos 2x cosh2 x + sinh2 x = cosh 2x

VIII.3. MORE ON MATHEMATICS 87

This cannot be produced by the equation structures discussed so far, because any of these environments takes up the entire width of the text for its display, so that we cannot put anything else on the same line. So amsmath provides variants gathered, aligned and alignedat which take up only the actual width of the contents for their display. Thus the above example is produced by the input

Compare the following sets of equations

egin{equation*}

egin{aligned}

cosˆ2x+sinˆ2x & = 1\

cosˆ2x-sinˆ2x & = cos 2x

end{aligned}

qquad ext{and}qquad

egin{aligned}

coshˆ2x-sinhˆ2x & = 1\

coshˆ2x+sinhˆ2x & = cosh 2x

end{aligned}

end{equation*}

Another often recurring structure in mathematics is a display like this

There is a special environment cases in amsmath to take care of these. The above exam- ple is in fact produced by

egin{equation*}

|x| =

egin{cases}

x & ext{if $xge 0$}\

-x & ext{if $xle 0$}

end{cases}

end{equation*}

VIII.3.3. Numbered equations

We have mentioned that each of the the ‘starred’ equation environments has a corre- sponding unstarred version, which also produces numbers for their displays. Thus our very first example of displayed equations with equation instead of equation* as in

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is

of the form

egin{equation}

ax+by+c=0

end{equation}

where $a$, $b$, $c$ are constants.

Compare the following sets of equations

cos2 x + sin2x = 1 cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1

cos2 x − sin2 x = cos 2x and cosh2 x + sinh2 x = cosh 2x

x if x ≥ 0 | x | =

−x ifx≤0

88 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

produces

Why VIII.2 for the equation number? Well, this is Equation number 2 of Chap- ter VIII, isn’t it? If you want the section number also in the equation number, just give the command

umberwithin{equation}{section}

We can also override the number LATEX produces with one of our own design with the ag command as in

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is

of the form

egin{equation}

ax+by+c=0 ag{L}

end{equation}

where $a$, $b$, $c$ are constants.

which gives

There is also a ag* command which typesets the equation label without parentheses. What about numbering alignment structures? Except for split and aligned, all other alignment structures have unstarred forms which attach numbers to each aligned

equation. For example,

egin{align}

x+y-z & = 1\

x-y+z & = 1

end{align}

gives

Here is also, you can give a label of your own to any of the equations with the ag command. Be careful to give the ag before the end of line character \ though. (See what happens if you give a ag command after a \.) You can also suppress the label for any equation with the

otag command. These are illustrated in the sample input below:

Thus $x$, $y$ and $z$ satisfy the equations

egin{align*}

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form (VIII.2) ax + by + c = 0

where a, b, c are constants.

The equation representing a straight line in the Cartesian plane is of the form (L) ax + by + c = 0

where a, b, c are constants.

(VIII.3) x+y−z=1 (VIII.4) x−y+z=1

VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY 89

x+y-z & = 1

tag\

x-y+z & = 1

otag\

intertext{and by hypothesis}

x+y+z & =1 ag{H}

end{align*}

which gives the following output

Thus x, y and z satisfy the equations

and by hypothesis

(H) x+y+z=1

x+y−z=1 x−y+z=1

What about split and aligned? As we have seen, these can be used only within some other equation structure. The numbering or the lack of it is determined by this parent structure. Thus

egin{equation}

egin{split}

(a+b)ˆ2 & = (a+b)(a+b)\

& = aˆ2+ab+ba+bˆ2\

& = aˆ2+2ab+bˆ2

end{split}

end{equation}

gives

VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY

There are more things Mathematics than just equations. Let us look at how LATEX and in

particular, the amsmath package deals with them. VIII.4.1. Matrices

Matrices are by definition numbers or mathematical expressions arranged in rows and columns. The amsmath has several environments for producing such arrays. For example

(a+b)2 =(a+b)(a+b) (VIII.5) =a2 +ab+ba+b2

=a2 +2ab+b2

90 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

The system of equations

can be written in matrix terms as

1 1 −1

1

x+y−z=1 x−y+z=1 x+y+z=1

1 −1 x

1

Here, the matrix 1 −1 1 is invertible.

1 1 1

1 −1 1y=1. 1 1 1 z 1

is produced by

The system of equations

egin{align*}

x+y-z & = 1\

x-y+z & = 1\

x+y+z & = 1

end{align*}

can be written in matrix terms as

egin{equation*}

egin{pmatrix} 1& 1&-1\ 1&-1& 1\ 1&1&1

end{pmatrix}

egin{pmatrix}

x\ y\ z

end{pmatrix}

=

egin{pmatrix}

1\ 1\ 1

end{pmatrix}.

end{equation*}

Here, the matrix

$egin{pmatrix}

1& 1&-1\ 1&-1& 1\ 1&1&1

end{pmatrix}$

is invertible.

Note that the environment pmatrix can be used within in-text mathematics or in displayed math. Why the p? There is indeed an environment matrix (without a p) but it

VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY 91

produces an array without the enclosing parentheses (try it). If you want the array to be enclosed within square brackets, use bmatrix instead of pmatrix. Thus

is produced by

Some mathematicians write matrices within parentheses as in

$

egin{pmatrix}

a & b\

c&d

end{pmatrix}

$

while others prefer square brackets as in $

egin{bmatrix}

a & b\

c&d end{bmatrix} $

There is also a vmatrix environment, which is usually used for determinants as in

which is obtained from the input

The determinant

$

egin{vmatrix}

a & b\

c&d end{vmatrix}

$

is defined by egin{equation*}

egin{vmatrix}

a & b\

c&d end{vmatrix} =ad -bc

end{equation*}

There is a variant Vmatrix which encloses the array in double lines. Finally, we have a Bmatrix environment which produces an array enclosed within braces { }.

a b Some mathematicians write matrices within parentheses as in c d

a b brackets as in c d

while others prefer square

The determinant c d is defined by

a b

a b

c d=ad−bc

92 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

A row of dots in a matrix can be produced by the command hdotsfour. it should be used with an argument specifying the number of columns to be spanned. For example, to get

we type

A general $m imes n$ matrix is of the form

egin{equation*}

egin{pmatrix}

a_{11} & a_{12} & dots & a_{1n}\

a_{21} & a_{22} & dots & a_{2n}\

hdotsfor{4}\

a_{m1} & a_{m2} & dots & a_{mn}

end{pmatrix}

end{equation*}

The command hdotsfor has also an optional argument to specify the spacing of dots. Thus in the above example, if we use hdotsfor[2]{4}, then the space between the dots is doubled as in

VIII.4.2. Dots

In the above example, we used the command dots to produce a row of three dots. This can be used in other contexts also. For example,

Consider a finite sequence $X_1,X_2,dots$, its sum $X_1+X_2+dots$

and product $X_1X_2dots$.

gives

ConsiderafinitesequenceX1,X2,…,itssumX1 +X2 +… andproductX1X2….

Here the dots in all the three contexts are along the “baseline” of the text. Isn’t it better

to typeset this as

ConsiderafinitesequenceX1,X2,…,itssumX1 +X2 +··· andproductX1X2···.

with raised dots for addition and multiplication? The above text is typeset by the input

Consider a finite sequence $X_1,X_2,dotsc$, its sum $X_1+X_2+dotsb$

and product $X_1X_2dotsm$.

A general m × n matrix is of the form

a 1 1 a 1 2 . . . a 1 n

a21 a22 … a2n

………………..

a a …a m1m2 mn

A general m × n matrix is of the form

a 1 1 a 1 2 . . . a 1 n

a21 a22 … a2n

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a a …a m1m2 mn

VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY 93

Here dotsc stands for dots to be used with commas, dotsb for dots with binary operations (or relations) and dotsm for multiplication dots. There is also a dotsi for dots with integrals as in

VIII.4.3. Delimiters

How do we produce something like

Here the ‘small’ in-text matrices are produced by the environment smallmatrix. This environment does not provide the enclosing delimiters ( ) or — — which we must supply as in

$

left|egin{smallmatrix}

a & h & g\ h & b & f\ g&f&c

end{smallmatrix}

ight|

=0

$,

the matrix

$

left(egin{smallmatrix}

a & h & g\ h & b & f\ g&f&c

··· f A1A2 An

a h g a h g

Since h b f = 0, the matrix h b f is not invertible. gfc gfc

end{smallmatrix}

ight)

is not invertible.

Why the left|…

ight| and left{…

ight? These commands left and

ight enlarge the delimiter following them to the size of the enclosed material. To see their ef- fect, try typesetting the above example without these commands. The list of symbols at the end of the chapter gives a list of delimiters that are available off the shelf.

One interesting point about the left and

ight pair is that, though every left should be matched to a

ight, the delimiters to which they apply need not match. In par- ticular we can produce a single large delimiter produced by left or

ight by matching it with a matching command followed by a period. For example,

is produced by

$

ux=vy uy = −vx

Cauchy-Riemann Equations

94 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

egin{equation*}

left.

egin{aligned}

u_x & = v_y\

u_y & = -v_x

end{aligned}

ight}

quad ext{Cauchy-Riemann Equations}

end{equation*}

There are instances where the delimiters produced by left and

ight are too small or too large. For example,

egin{equation*}

(x+y)ˆ2-(x-y)ˆ2=left((x+y)+(x-y)

ight)left((x+y)-(x-y)

ight)=4xy

end{equation*}

gives

(x+y)2 −(x−y)2 =(x+y)+(x−y)(x+y)−(x−y)=4xy

where the parentheses are all of the same size. But it may be better to make the outer

ones a little larger to make the nesting visually apparent, as in

(x+y)2 −(x−y)2 =(x+y)+(x−y)(x+y)−(x−y)=4xy

This is produced using the commands igl and igr before the outer parentheses as

shown below:

egin{equation*}

(x+y)ˆ2-(x-y)ˆ2=igl((x+y)+(x-y)igr)igl((x+y)-(x-y)igr)=4xy

end{equation*}

Apart from igl and igr there are Bigl, iggl and Biggl commands (and their r counterparts) which (in order) produce delimiters of increasing size. (Experiment with them to get a feel for their sizes.)

As another example, look at

which is produced by

For $n$-tuples of complex numbers $(x_1,x_2,dotsc,x_n)$ and

$(y_1,y_2,dotsc,y_n)$ of complex numbers

egin{equation*}

left(sum_{k=1}ˆn|x_ky_k|

ight)ˆ2le

left(sum_{k=1}ˆ{n}|x_k|

ight)left(sum_{k=1}ˆ{n}|y_k|

ight)

end{equation*}

Does not the output below look better?

For n-tuples of complex numbers (x1, x2, . . . , xn) and (y1, y2, . . . , yn) of complex numbers n 2 n n

|xy| ≤ |x| |y| kkkk

k=1 k=1 k=1

This one is produced by

VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY 95

For n-tuples of complex numbers (x1, x2, . . . , xn) and (y1, y2, . . . , yn) of complex numbers

n 2 n n |xkyk| ≤ |xk| |yk|

k=1 k=1 k=1

For $n$-tuples of complex numbers $(x_1,x_2,dotsc,x_n)$ and

$(y_1,y_2,dotsc,y_n)$ of complex numbers

egin{equation*}

iggl(sum_{k=1}ˆn|x_ky_k|iggr)ˆ2le

iggl(sum_{k=1}ˆ{n}|x_k|iggr)iggl(sum_{k=1}ˆ{n}|y_k|iggr)

end{equation*}

Here the trouble is that the delimiters produced by left and

ight are a bit too large.

VIII.4.4. Putting one over another Look at the following text

We have fractions like 1 and binomial coefficients like n here and the common feature 2n−1 2

of both is that they have one mathematical expression over another.

Fractions are produced by the frac command which takes two arguments, the nu- merator followed by the denominator and the binomial coefficients are produced by the inom command which also takes two arguments, the ‘top’ expression followed by the

‘bottom’ one. Thus the the input for the above example is

From the binomial theorem, it easily follows that if $n$ is an even

number, then

egin{equation*}

1-inom{n}{1}frac{1}{2}+inom{n}{2}frac{1}{2ˆ2}-dotsb

-inom{n}{n-1}frac{1}{2ˆ{n-1}}=0

end{equation*}

You can see from the first paragraph above that the size of the outputs of frac and inom are smaller in text than in display. This default behavior has to be modified sometimes for nicer looking output. For example, consider the following output

Would not it be nicer to make the fraction smaller and typeset this as

The second output is produced by the input

From the binomial theorem, it easily follows that if n is an even number, then

n1 n1 n1

1− 1 2+ 2 22 −···− n−1 2n−1 =0

Since (xn) converges to 0, there exists a positive integer p such that

|xn|< 1 foralln≥p 2
Since (xn) converges to 0, there exists a positive integer p such that
|xn|< 1 foralln≥p 2
96 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS
Since $(x_n)$ converges to $0$, there exists a positive integer $p$
such that
egin{equation*}
|x_n|< frac{1}{2}quad ext{for all $nge p$}
end{equation*}
Note the use of the command frac to produce a smaller fraction. (The first output is produced by the usual frac command.)
There is also command dfrac to produce a display style (larger size) fraction in text. Thus the sentence after the first example in this (sub)section can be typeset as
by the input
We have fractions like $dfrac{1}{2ˆ{n-1}}$ and ...
As can be guessed, the original output was produced by frac. Similarly, there are commands dbinom (to produce display style binomial coefficients) and binom (to produce text style binomial coefficients).
There is also a genfrac command which can be used to produce custom fractions. To use it, we will have to specify six things
1. The left delimiter to be used—note that { must be specified as {
2. The right delimiter—again, } to be specified as }
3. The thickness of the horizontal line between the top expression and the bottom ex-
pression. If it is not specified, then it defaults to the ‘normal’ thickness. If it is set as
0pt then there will be no such line at all in the output.
4. The size of the output—this is specified as an integer 0, 1, 2 or 3, greater values cor-
responding to smaller sizes. (Technically these values correspond to displaystyle,
extstyle, scriptstyle and scriptscriptstyle.)
5. The top expression
6. The bottom expression
Thus instead of frac{1}{2} we can also use genfrac{}{}{}{1}{1}{2} and instead
of dbinom{n}{r}, we can also use genfrac{(}{)}{0pt}{0}{1}{2} (but there is hardly
any reason for doing so). More seriously, suppose we want to produce ij and ij as in kk
This can be done by the input
If such expressions are frequent in the document, it would be better to define ‘newcom- mands’ for them and use them instead of genfrac every time as in the following input (which produces the same output as above).
We have fractions like 1 and ... 2n−1
The Christoffel symbol ij of the second kind is related to the Christoffel symbol ij of the first
kind by the equation
kk ij ij ij
= gk1 + gk2 k12
The Christoffel symbol ij of the second kind is related to the Christoffel symbol ij of the first
kind by the equation
kk ij ij ij
= gk1 + gk2 k12
VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY 97
ewcommand{chsfk}[2]{genfrac{[}{]}{0pt}{}{#1}{#2}}
ewcommand{chssk}[2]{genfrac{{}{}}{0pt}{}{#1}{#2}}
The Christoffel symbol $genfrac{{}{}}{0pt}{}{ij}{k}$ of the second
kind is related to the Christoffel symbol $genfrac{[}{]}{0pt}{}{ij}{k}$
of the first kind by the equation
egin{equation*}
chssk{ij}{k}=gˆ{k1}chsfk{ij}{1}+gˆ{k2}chsfk{ij}{2}
end{equation*}
While on the topic of fractions, we should also mention the cfrac command used to typeset continued fractions. For example, to get
simply type
egin{equation*}
frac{4}{pi}=1+cfrac{1ˆ2}{2+
cfrac{3ˆ2}{2+
cfrac{5ˆ2}{2+dotsb}}}
end{equation*}
Some mathematicians would like to write the above equation as
There is no ready-to-use command to produce this, but we can define one as follows
ewcommand{cfplus}{mathbin{genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{}{+}}}
egin{equation*}
frac{4}{pi}
=1+frac{1ˆ2}{2}cfplusfrac{3ˆ2}{2}cfplusfrac{5ˆ2}{2}cfplusdotsb
end{equation*}
VIII.4.5. Affixing symbols—over or under
4=1+ 12
π 32
2+
2+2+···
52
4 12 32 52 π=1+2+2+2+···
The table at the end of this chapter gives various math mode accents such as $hat{a}$ ◦
to produce aˆ and $dot{a}$ to produce a ̇. But what if one needs a or a? The commands ◦
◦
overset and underset come to the rescue. Thus $overset{circ}{a}$ produces a and $underset{circ}{a}$ produces a.
◦
BasicLATEXprovidesthecommandsoverrightarrowandoverleftarrowalsotoput (extensible) arrows over symbols, as can be seen from the table. The amsmath package also provides the commands underrightarrow and underleftarrow to put (extensible) arrows below mathematical expressions.
Speaking of arrows, amsmath provides the commands xrightarrow and xleftarrow which produces arrows which can accommodate long texts as superscripts or subscripts. Thus we can produce
98 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS
from the input
Thus we see that
egin{equation*}
0xrightarrow{} Axrightarrow{f}
Bxrightarrow{g}
Thus we see that
is a short exact sequence
fg
0→− A→− B→− C→− 0
Cxrightarrow{} 0
is a short exact sequence
Note how the mandatory arguments of the first and last arrows are left empty to produce arrows with no superscripts. These commands also allow an optional argument (to be typed inside square brackets), which can be used to produce subscripts. For example
Thus we get
egin{equation*}
0xrightarrow{} Axrightarrow[ ext{monic}]{f}
Bxrightarrow[ ext{epi}]{g}
end{equation*}
end{equation*}
gives
Thus we get
end{equation*}
This gives
Cxrightarrow{} 0
fg
0 →− A − − − − → B − − → C →− 0
monic epi
By the way, would not it be nicer to make the two middle arrows the same width? This can be done by changing the command for the third arrow (the one from B) as shown below
Thus we get
egin{equation*}
0xrightarrow{} Axrightarrow[ ext{monic}]{f}
Bxrightarrow[hspace{7pt} ext{epi}hspace{7pt}]{g}
Cxrightarrow{}0
Thus we get
fg
0 →− A − − − − → B − − − − − → C →− 0
monic epi
where the lengths of the two arrows are almost the same. There are indeed ways to make the lengths exactly the same, but we will talk about it in another chapter.
Mathematical symbols are also attached as limits to such large operators as sum (), product () set union (), set intersection () and so on. The limits are input as subscripts or superscripts, but their positioning in the output is different in text and display. For example, the input
VIII.4. MATHEMATICS MISCELLANY 99
Euler not only proved that the series
$sum_{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}$ converges, but also that
egin{equation*}
sum_{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}=frac{piˆ2}{6}
end{equation*}
gives the output
Note that in display, the sum symbol is larger and the limits are put at the bottom and top (instead of at the sides,which is usually the case for subscripts and superscripts). If you want the same type of symbol (size, limits and all) in text also, simply change the line
$sum_{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}$
to
and you will get
(Note that this also changes the size of the fraction. What would you do to keep it small?) On the other hand, to make the displayed operator the same as in the text, add the command extstyle before the sum within the equation.
What if you only want to change the position of the limits but not the size of the operator in text? Then change the command $sum_{n=1}ˆinfty frac{1}{nˆ2}$ to $sum_limits{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}$ and this will produce the output given below.
On the other hand, if you want side-set limits in display type
olimits after the sum within the equation as in
Euler not only proved that the series
$sum_{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}$ converges, but also that
egin{equation*}
sum
olimits_{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}=frac{piˆ2}{6}
end{equation*}
which gives
Euler not only proved that the series ∞ 1 n=1 n2
converges, but also that
∞ 1 = π 2 n=1 n2 6
$displaystylesum_{n=1}ˆinftyfrac{1}{nˆ2}$
∞
Euler not only proved that the series 1 converges, but also that n=1 n2
∞ 1 = π 2 n=1 n2 6
∞
Euler not only proved that the series 1 converges, but also that n=1 n2
∞ 1 = π 2 n=1 n2 6
100 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS
All these are true for other operators classified as “Variable-sized symbols”,except integrals. Though the integral symbol in display is larger, the position of the limits in both text and display is on the side as can be seen from the output below
which is produced by
Thus
$limlimits_{x oinfty}int_0ˆxfrac{sin x}{x},mathrm{d}x
=frac{pi}{2}$
and so by definition,
egin{equation*}
int_0ˆinftyfrac{sin x}{x},mathrm{d}x=frac{pi}{2}
end{equation*}
If you want the limits to be above and below the integral sign, just add the command limits immediately after the int command. Thus
Thus
$limlimits_{x oinfty}int_0ˆxfrac{sin x}{x},mathrm{d}x
=frac{pi}{2}$
and so by definition,
egin{equation*}
intlimits_0ˆinftyfrac{sin x}{x},mathrm{d}x=frac{pi}{2}
end{equation*}
gives
Now how do we typeset something like
where we have two lines of subscripts for ? There is a command substack which will do the trick. The above output is obtained from
Euler not only proved that the series ∞ 1 n=1 n2
converges, but also that
∞ 1 π2 n=1n2 = 6
Thus lim x sinx dx = π and so by definition, x→∞0x 2
∞ sin x dx = π 0x2
Thus lim x sinx dx = π and so by definition, x→∞0x 2
∞
sinxdx=π x2
0
pk(x)=n x−ti
i=1 tk−ti ik
VIII.5. NEW OPERATORS 101
egin{equation*}
p_k(x)=prod_{substack{i=1\i
e k}}ˆn
left(frac{x-t_i}{t_k-t_i}
ight)
The amsmath package has also a sideset command which can be used to put
end{equation*}
symbols at any of the four corners of a large operator. Thus $sideset{_{ll}ˆ{ul}}{_{lr}ˆ{ur}}igcup$ produces $sideset{}{’}sum$ produces
VIII.5. NEW OPERATORS
ul ur ll lr
′
Mathematical text is usually typeset in italics, and TEX follows this tradition. But certain functions in mathematics such as log, sin, lim and so on are traditionally typeset in roman. This is implemented in TEX by the use of commands like $log$, $sin$, $lim$ and so on. The symbols classified as “Log-like symbols” in the table at the end of this chapter shows such functions which are predefined in LATEX.
Having read thus far, it may be no surprise to learn that we can define our own “operator names” which receive this special typographic treatment. This is done by the DeclareMathOperator command. Thus if the operator cl occurs frequently in the document, you can make the declaration
in the preamble and then type $cl(A)$ to produce cl(A), for example.
Note that an operator defined like this accommodates subscripts and superscripts in
the usual way, that is, at its sides. Thus
We denote the closure of $A$ in the subspace $Y$ of $X$ by
$cl_Y(A)$
produces
We denote the closure of A in the subspace Y of X by clY(A)
If we want to define a new operator with subscripts and superscripts placed in the “lim-
its” position below and above, then we should use the starred form of the DeclareMathOperator as shown below
DeclareMathOperator*{esup}{ess,sup}
For $fin Lˆinfty(R)$, we define
egin{equation*}
||f||_infty=esup_{xin R}|f(x)|
end{equation*}
(Note that the declaration must be done in the preamble.) This produces the output
(Why the , command in the definition?)
.
DeclareMathOperator{cl}{cl}
For f ∈ L∞(R), we define
||f||∞ = esssup|f(x)| x∈R
102 VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS
VIII.6. THE MANY FACES OF MATHEMATICS
We have noted that most mathematics is typeset in italics typeface and some mathematical operators are typeset in an upright fashion. There may be need for additional typefaces as in typesetting vectors in boldface.
LATEX includes several styles to typeset mathematics as shown in the table below
TYPE STYLE
COMMAND
EXAMPLE
INPUT
OUTPUT
italic (default)
roman bold
sans serif typewriter
calligraphic (upper case only)
mathit
mathrm
mathbf
mathsf
mathtt
mathcal
$x+y=z$
$mathrm{x+y=z}$
$mathbf{x+y=z}$
$mathsf{x+y=z}$
$mathtt{x+y=z}$
$mathcal{X+Y=Z}$
x+y=z
x+y=z x+y=z x+y=z x+y=z
X+Y=Z
In addition to these, several other math alphabets are available in various packages (some of which are shown in the list of symbols at the end of this chapter).
Note that the command mathbf produces only roman boldface and not math italic boldface. Sometimes you may need boldface math italic, for example to typeset vectors. For this, amsmath provides the oldsymbol command. Thus we can get
from the input
In this case, we define
egin{equation*}
oldsymbol{a}+oldsymbol{b}=oldsymbol{c}
end{equation*}
If the document contains several occurrences of such symbols, it is better to make a new definition such as
and then use $vect{a}$ to produce a and $vect{b}$ to produce b and so on. the additional advantage of this approach is that if you change your mind later and want
→−
Now if we change the input of the above example as
In this case, we define
egin{equation*}
oldsymbol{a+b=c}
end{equation*}
then we get the output
In this case, we define
a+b=c
ewcommand{vect}[1]{oldsymbol{#1}}
vectors to be typeset with arrows above them as a , then all you need is to change the oldsymol part of the definition of vect to overrightarrow and the change will be effected throughout the document.
VIII.7. AND THAT IS NOT ALL! 103
Note that now the symbols + and = are also in boldface. Thus oldsymbol makes bold every math symbol in its scope (provided the bold version of that symbol is available in the current math font).
There is another reason for tweaking the math fonts. Recently, the International Standards Organization (ISO) has established the recognized typesetting standards in mathematics. Some of the points in it are,
1. Simple variables are represented by italic letters as a, x.
2. Vectors are written in boldface italic as a, x.
3. Matrices may appear in sans serif as in A, X.
4. The special numbers e, i and the differential operator d are written in upright roman.
Point 1 is the default in LATEX and we have seen how point 2 can be implemented. to fulfill Point 4, it is enough if we define something like
ewcommand{me}{mathrm{e}}
ewcommand{mi}{mathrm{i}}
ewcommand{diff}{mathrm{d}}
and then use $me$ for e and $mi$ for i and $diff x$ for dx.
Point 3 can be implemented using mathsf but it is a bit difficult (but not impossible)
if we need them to be in italic also. The solution is to create a new math alphabet, say, mathsfsl by the command
DeclareMathAlphabet{mathsfsl}{OT1}{cmss}{m}{sl}
(in the preamble) and use it to define a command matr to typeset matrices in this font by
ewcommand{matr}[1]{ensuremath{mathsfsl{#1}}}
so that $maqtr A$ produces A.
VIII.7. AND THAT IS NOT ALL!
We have only briefly discussed the basic techniques of typesetting mathematics using LATEX and some of the features of the amsmath package which helps us in this task. For more details on this package see the document amsldoc.dvi which should be available with your TEX distribution. If you want to produce really beautiful mathematical doc- uments, read the Master—“The TEX Book” by Donald Knuth, especially Chapter 18, “Fine Points of Mathematics Typing”.
In this case, we define
α alpha
β eta
γ gamma
δ delta
ε epsilon
ε varepsilon
θ heta
θ vartheta ι iota
κ kappa
λ lambda μ mu
oo
π pi
π varpi ρ
ho
ρ varrho σ sigma
τ au
υ upsilon φ phi
φ varphi χ chi
ψ psi
a+b=c
VIII.8. SYMBOLS Table VIII.1: Greek Letters
104
ζ η
Γ ∆ Θ
VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS
±
∓
×
÷
∗
⋆
◦
•
· ++
∩ cap
∪ cup
⊎ uplus
⊓ sqcap
⊔ sqcup
∨ vee ▹ ∧ wedge ◃ setminus ≀ wr −-
⊕ oplus ⊖ ominus ⊗ otimes ⊘ oslash ⊙ odot
⃝ igcirc † dagger ‡ ddagger ⨿ amalg
zeta eta
Gamma
Delta
Theta
ν
u ξ xi
Λ Lambda Ξ Xi
Π Pi
ς varsigma ω
Σ Sigma Ψ Psi
pm
mp
imes
div
ast
star
circ
ullet
cdot
⋄ △ ▽ ▹ ◃
diamond igtriangleup igtriangledown riangleleft riangleright lhd∗
hd∗ unlhd∗ unrhd∗
Table VIII.2: Binary Operation Symbols
∗ Not predefined in LATEX 2ε. Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts or amssymb. Table VIII.3: Relation Symbols
≡ equiv |= models ∼ sim ⊥ perp
≃ simeq | mid
≍ asymp ∥ parallel ≈ approx ◃▹ owtie
cong Join∗
eq ⌣ smile doteq ⌢ frown ∝propto = = << > >

∗ Not predefined in LATEX 2ε. Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts or amssymb. Table VIII.4: Punctuation Symbols

≤ leq

≺ prec

≼ preceq

≪ ll

⊂ subset

⊆ subseteq

sqsubset∗

⊑ sqsubseteq ⊒ sqsupseteq ∈ in ∋

i

⊢ vdash ⊣ dashv ::

,, ;;

← leftarrow

⇐ Leftarrow

→

ightarrow

⇒ Rightarrow

↔ leftrightarrow ⇔ Leftrightarrow → mapsto

: colon .ldotp ·cdotp Table VIII.5: Arrow Symbols

≥ geq

≻ succ

≽ succeq ≫ gg

⊃ supset

⊇ supseteq sqsupset∗

Υ Upsilon Ω Φ Phi

Omega

←− longleftarrow

⇐= Longleftarrow

−→ longrightarrow =⇒ Longrightarrow ←→ longleftrightarrow ⇐⇒ Longleftrightarrow −→ longmapsto

↑ uparrow

⇑ Uparrow

↓ downarrow ⇓ Downarrow ↕ updownarrow ⇕ Updownarrow ↗

earrow

omega

VIII.8. SYMBOLS

← hookleftarrow → hookrightarrow

↼ leftharpoonup ⇀

ightharpoonup

↽ leftharpoondown ⇁

ightharpoondown ↖

warrow

ightleftharpoons leadsto∗

105

∗ Not predefined in LATEX 2ε. Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts or amssymb. Table VIII.6: Miscellaneous Symbols

… ldots א aleph hbar ı imath

jmath l ell ℘ wp

R Re

I Im

··· cdots .

′ prime ∀

∅ emptyset ∃

vdots … ddots

∇

abla ¬

eg

√

surd ♭ flat △ ⊤ op ♮

atural ♣ ⊥ ot ♯ sharp ♦ ∥ | ackslash ♥ ∠ angle ∂ partial ♠

forall ∞ exists

infty

Box∗ Diamond∗ riangle clubsuit diamondsuit heartsuit spadesuit

mho∗ .. ||

∗ Not predefined in LATEX 2ε. Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts or amssymb.

Table VIII.7: Variable-sized Symbols

arg

coth dim inf liminf max

sin anh

⇑ Uparrow

⇓ Downarrow ⇕ Updownarrow ⌉

ceil

ackslash

sum

prod

coprod

igcap igodot igcup igotimes igsqcup igoplus igvee iguplus igwedge

int oint

((

[[

{ {

⌊ lfloor

⟨ langle

|| ∥|

Table VIII.9: Delimiters ↑ uparrow

Table VIII.8: Log-like Symbols

arccos cos csc exp ker limsup min sinh arcsin cosh deg gcd lg ln Pr sup arctan cot det hom lim log sec an

) )

] ]

} }

⌋

floor ⌈ lceil ⟩

angle / /

↓ downarrow ↕ updownarrow

Table VIII.10: Large Delimiters

moustache lmoustache

group lgroup

arrowvert Arrowvert racevert

↘ searrow ↙ swarrow

106

VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

Table VIII.11: Math Mode Accents

aˆ hat{a} a ́ acute{a} a ̄ ar{a} a ̇ dot{a} a ̆ reve{a} aˇ check{a} a` grave{a} ⃗a vec{a} a ̈ ddot{a} a ̃ ilde{a}

Table VIII.12: Some other Constructions

abc widetilde{abc} abc

widehat{abc}

overrightarrow{abc}

underline{abc}

underbrace{abc}

sqrt[n]{abc}

frac{abc}{xyz}

←−

−→

abc overleftarrow{abc} abc abc overline{abc} abc

abc overbrace{abc} abc

√√

abc sqrt{abc} n abc

f ′ f’

abc xyz

Table VIII.13: AMS Delimiters

ulcorner urcorner llcorner lrcorner

Table VIII.14: AMS Arrows

dashrightarrow

⇔ leftleftarrows

Lleftarrow

leftarrowtail

leftrightharpoons curvearrowleft

circlearrowleft

upuparrows

downharpoonleft

leftrightsquigarrow

ightleftarrows

Lsh

upharpoonleft

multimap

⇒

ightrightarrows ⇒

ightrightarrows woheadrightarrow looparrowright

ightleftarrows

ightarrowtail

ightleftharpoons curvearrowright circlearrowright Rsh

downdownarrows upharpoonright downharpoonright

ightsquigarrow

Table VIII.15: AMS Negated Arrows

leftarrow

rightarrow

Leftarrow

Rightarrow

leftrightarrow

Leftrightarrow

Table VIII.16: AMS Greek

dashleftarrow leftrightarrows woheadleftarrow looparrowleft

￼ dotplus arwedge oxtimes ltimes

curlywedge

circledcirc

Cup

ightthreetimes

smallsetminus veebar

oxdot

times

curlyvee

centerdot oxminus circledast

Cap

doublebarwedge oxplus

leftthreetimes ⊖ circleddash

intercal

divideontimes

leqq

lessapprox

≶ lessgtr

isingdotseq

subseteqq

curlyeqprec

rianglelefteq

smallfrown

geqslant

gtrdot

gtreqqless

∼ hicksim

leqslant

approxeq

lesseqgtr

fallingdotseq Subset

precsim

vDash

umpeq

eqslantgtr ≫ ggg

eqcirc

≈ hickapprox

eqslantless lessdot

lesseqqgtr acksim

sqsubset precapprox Vvdash

Bumpeq

gtrsim

≷ gtrless

circeq

supseteqq

VIII.8. SYMBOLS 107

digamma κ varkappa

Table VIII.17: AMS Hebrew

eth daleth ג gimel

Table VIII.18: AMS Miscellaneous

hbar

square

measuredangle

Game

lacktriangle

⋆ igstar

diagup

△ vartriangle

circledS

mho

ackprime

lacksquare lacklozenge complement ð eth

hslash

♦ lozenge

exists

k Bbbk

lacktriangledown sphericalangle

diagdown

▽ riangledown

∠ angle

Finv

∅ varnothing

Table VIII.19: AMS Binary Operators

Table VIII.20: AMS Binary Relations

108

VIII. TYPESETTING MATHEMATICS

sqsupset

succapprox

shortmid

∝ varpropto

lacktriangleright ∵ ≪ lll preccurlyeq ▹ geqq riangleq

Vdash

≮
less
lneq
lnapprox
precnapprox
vdash
subseteq
varsubsetneqq
geqq
gnsim
succeq
shortparallel
triangleright
supsetneq
leqq
mid
geqslant
cong
varsupsetneqq
leq
lneqq
⊀
prec
sim
vDash
subsetneq
≯

gtr

gneq

gnapprox

succnsim

∦

parallel

trianglerighteq varsupsetneq

lnsim

trianglelefteq gvertneqq

VDash

leqslant

lvertneqq

preceq

shortmid

triangleleft varsubsetneq

geq

gneqq

succ

succnapprox

vDash

supseteq supsetneqq precnsim

subsetneqq

succeq

supseteqq

succcurlyeq

◃ vartriangleright

shortparallel

lacktriangleleft

ecause

doteqdot

vartriangleleft

gtrapprox

Supset

curlyeqsucc

rianglerighteq etween

∴ herefore

lesssim

acksimeq

smallsmile

gtreqless

succsim

ackepsilon

pitchfork

Table VIII.21: AMS Negated Binary Relations

Table VIII.22: Math Alphabets Required package

ABCdef

ABCdef

ABCde f

ABC

ABC

ABCdef

ABC

ABC

mathrm{ABCdef}

mathitABCdef

mathnormal{ABCdef}

mathcal{ABC}

mathcal{ABC}

mathscr{ABC}

mathfrak{ABCdef}

mathbb{ABC}

mathscr{ABC}

euscript with option: mathcal euscript with option: mathcr eufrak

amsfonts or amssymb mathrsfs

TUTORIAL IX

TYPESETTING THEOREMS

IX.1. THEOREMS IN LATEX

In Mathematical documents we often have special statements such as axioms (which are nothing but the assumptions made) and theorems (which are the conclusions obtained, sometimes known by other names like propositions or lemmas). These are often typeset in different font to distinguish them from surrounding text and given a name and a num- ber for subsequent reference. Such distinguished statements are now increasingly seen in other subjects also. We use the term theorem-like statements for all such statements.

LATEX provides the declaration

ewtheorem to define the theorem-like statements needed in a document. This command has two arguments, the first for the name we assign to the environment and the second, the name to be printed with the statement. Thus if you want

Theorem 1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦. you first specify

ewtheorem{thm}{Theorem}

and then type

egin{thm}

The sum of the angles of a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{thm}

Note that in the command

ewtheorem the first argument can be any name you fancy, in- stead of the thm given here. Also, it is a good idea to keep all your

ewtheorem commands together in the preamble.

The

ewtheorem command has a couple of optional arguments which control the way the corresponding statement is numbered. For example if you want the above theo- rem to be numbered 1.1 (the first theorem of the first section) rather than a plain 1, then you must specify

ewtheorem{thm}{Theorem}[section]

in the

ewtheorem command. Then the same input as above for the theorem produces

Theorem IX.1.1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦.

The next Theorem will be numbered 1.2, the third Theorem in the fourth section will be numbered 4.3 and so on.

109

110 IX. TYPESETTING THEOREMS

The other optional argument of the

ewtheorem command is useful when you have several different types of theorem-like statements (such as lemmas and corollaries) and you want some of them to share the same numbering sequence. For example if you want

Theorem IX.1.2. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦.

An immediate consequence of the result is the following

Corollary IX.1.3. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360◦. Then you must specify

ewtheorem{cor}[thm]{Corollary}

after the specification

ewtheorem{thm}[section] and then type egin{thm}

The sum of the angles of a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{thm}

An immediate consequence of the result is the following

Corollary IX.1.4. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360◦.

The optional argument thm in the definition of the cor environment specifies that “Corollaries” and “Theorems” are to be numbered in the same sequence.

A theorem-like environment defined using the

ewtheorem command has also an optional argument which is used to give a note about the theorem such as the name of its discoverer or its own common name. For example, to get

Theorem IX.1.5 (Euclid). The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦. you must type

egin{thm}[Euclid]

The sum of the angles of a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{thm}

Note the optional argument Euclid after the egin{thm}. This use of […] for optional

notes sometimes lead to unintended results. For example, to get

Theorem IX.1.6. [0, 1] is a compact subset of R.

if you type

egin{thm}

[0,1] is a compact subset of $mathbb{R}$.

end{thm}

then you get

Theorem IX.1.7 (0,1). is a compact subset of R.

Do you see what happened? The string 0,1 within [ ] at the beginning of the theorem is considered an optional note by LATEX ! The correct way is to type

IX.2. DESIGNER THEOREMS—THE AMSTHM PACKAGE 111

egin{thm}

$[0,1]$ is a compact subset of $mathbb{R}$.

end{thm}

Now all the theorem-like statements produced above have the same typographical form— name and number in boldface and the body of the statement in italics. What if you need something like

THEOREM IX.1.1 (EUCLID). The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦.

Such customization is necessitated not only by the aesthetics of the author but often by

the whims of the designers in publishing houses also.

IX.2. DESIGNER THEOREMS—THE AMSTHM PACKAGE

The package amsthm affords a high level of customization in formatting theorem-like

statements. Let us first look at the predefined styles available in this package. IX.2.1. Ready made styles

The default style (this is what you get if you do not say anything about the style) is termed plain and it is what we have seen so far—name and number in boldface and body in italic. Then there is the definition style which gives name and number in boldface and body in roman. And finally there is the remark style which gives number and name in italics and body in roman.

For example if you put in the preamble

usepackage{amsthm}

ewtheorem{thm}{Theorem}[section]

heoremstyle{definition}

ewtheorem{dfn}{Definition}[section]

heoremstyle{remark}

ewtheorem{note}{Note}[section]

heoremstyle{plain}

ewtheorem{lem}[thm]{Lemma}

and then type somewhere in your document

egin{dfn}

A triangle is the figure formed by joining each pair

of three non collinear points by line segments.

end{dfn}

egin{note}

A triangle has three angles.

end{note}

egin{thm}

The sum of the angles of a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{thm}

egin{lem}

The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than or equal to the third.

end{lem}

112 IX. TYPESETTING THEOREMS

then you get

Note how the heoremstyle command is used to switch between various styles, espe-

cially the last heoremstyle{plain} command. Without it, the previous heoremstyle{remark} will still be in force when lem is defined and so “Lemma” will be typeset in the remark

style.

IX.2.2. Custom made theorems

Now we are ready to roll our own “theorem styles”. This is done via the

ewtheoremstyle command, which allows us to control almost all aspects of typesetting theorem like state- ments. this command has nine parameters and the general syntax is

ewtheoremstyle% {name}% {abovespace}% {belowspace}% {bodyfont}% {indent}% {headfont}% {headpunct}% {headspace}% {custom-head-spec}%

The first parameter name is the name of the new style. Note that it is not the name of the environment which is to be used later. Thus in the example above remark is the name of a new style for typesetting theorem like statements and note is the name of the environment subsequently defined to have this style (and Note is the name of the statement itself).

The next two parameters determine the vertical space between the theorem and the surrounding text—the abovespace is the space from the preceding text and the belows- pace the space from the following text. You can specify either a rigid length (such as 12pt) or a rubber length (such as aselineskip) as a value for either of these. Leaving either of these empty sets them to the “usual values” (Technically the opsep).

The fourth parameter bodyfont specifies the font to be used for the body of the theorem-like statement. This is to be given as a declaration such as scshape or fseries and not as a command such as extsc or extbf. If this is left empty, then the main text font of the document is used.

The next four parameters refer to the theoremhead—the part of the theorem like statement consisting of the name, number and the optional note. The fifth parameter indent specifies the indentation of theoremhead from the left margin. If this is empty, then there is no indentation of the theoremhead from the left margin. The next parameter specifies the font to be used for the theoremhead. The comments about the parameter bodyfont, made in the previous paragraph holds for this also. The parameter headpunct

Definition IX.2.1. A triangle is the figure formed by joining each pair of three non collinear points by line segments.

Note IX.2.1. A triangle has three angles. 1note

Theorem IX.2.1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦.

Lemma IX.2.2. The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than or equal to the third.

IX.2. DESIGNER THEOREMS—THE AMSTHM PACKAGE 113

(the seventh in our list) is for specifying the punctuation after the theoremhead. If you do not want any, you can leave this empty. The last parameter in this category (the last but one in the entire list), namely headspace, determines the (horizontal) space to be left between the theoremhead and the theorembody. If you want only a normal interword space here put a single blank space as { } in this place. (Note that it is not the same as leaving this empty as in {}.) Another option here is to put the command

ewline here. Then instead of a space, you get a linebreak in the output; that is, the theoremhead will be printed in a line by itself and the theorembody starts from the next line.

The last parameter custom-head-spec is for customizing theoremheads. Since it needs some explanation (and since we are definitely in need of some breathing space), let us now look at a few examples using the eight parameters we’ve already discussed.

It is almost obvious now how the last theorem in Section 1 (see Page 111) was designed. It was generated by

ewtheoremstyle{mystyle}{}{}{slshape}{}{scshape}{.}{ }{}

heoremstyle{mystyle}

ewtheorem{mythm}{Theorem}[section]

egin{mythm}

The sum of the angles of a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{mythm}

As another example, consider the following

ewtheoremstyle{mynewstyle}{12pt}{12pt}{itshape}%

{}{sffamily}{:}{

ewline}{}

heoremstyle{mynewstyle}

ewtheorem{mynewthm}{Theorem}[section]

egin{mynewthm}[Euclid]

The sum of the angles of a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{mynewthm}

This produces

Do you need anything more? Perhaps yes. Note that theoremhead includes the op- tional note to the theorem also, so that the font of the number and name of the theorem- like statement and that of the optional note are always the same. What if you need something like

It is in such cases, that the last parameter of

ewtheoremstyle is needed. Using it we can separately customize the name and number of the theorem-like statement and also the optional note. The basic syntax for setting this parameter is

{commands#1commands#2commands#3}

where #1 corresponds to the name of the theorem-like statement, #2 corresponds to its number and #3 corresponds to the optional note. We are here actually supplying the replacement text for a command hmhead which has three arguments. It is as if we are defining

Theorem IX.2.1 (Euclid):

The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180◦.

Cauchy’s Theorem (Third Version). If G is a simply connected open subset of C, then for every closed rectifiable curve γ in G, we have

f = 0. γ

114 IX. TYPESETTING THEOREMS

enewcommand{ hmhead}[3]{…#1…#2…#3}

but without actually typing the

enewcommand{ hmhead}[3]. For example the theorem

above (Cauchy’s Theorem) was produced by

ewtheoremstyle{nonum}{}{}{itshape}{}{fseries}{.}{ }{#1 (mdseries #3)}

heoremstyle{nonum}

ewtheorem{Cauchy}{Cauchy’s Theorem}

egin{Cauchy}[Third Version]

If $G$ is a simply connected open subset of $mathbb{C}$, then for every closed

rectifiable curve $gamma$ in $G$, we have

egin{equation*}

int_gamma f=0.

end{equation*}

end{Cauchy}

Note that the absence of #2 in the custom-head-spec, suppresses the theorem number and that the space after #1 and the command (mdseries#3) sets the optional note in medium size within parentheses and with a preceding space.

Now if you try to produce

by typing

heoremstyle{nonum}

ewtheorem{Riemann}{Riemann Mapping THeorem}

egin{Riemann}Every open simply connected proper subset of $mathbb{C}$ is analytically

homeomorphic to the open unit disk in $mathbb{C}$.

end{Riemann}

you will get

Do you see what is happened? In the heoremstyle{diffnotenonum}, the parameter controlling the note part of the theoremhead was defined as (mdseries #3) and in the

ewtheorem{Riemann}, there is no optional note, so that in the output, you get an empty “note”, enclosed in parantheses (and also with a preceding space).

To get around these difficulties, you can use the commands hmname, hmnumber and hmnote within the {custom-head-spec} as

{ hmname{commands#1}% hmnumber{commands#2}% hmnote{commands#3}}

Each of these three commands will typeset its argument if and only if the correspond- ing argument in the hmhead is non empty. Thus the correct way to get the Riemann Mapping theorem in Page 114 is to input

Riemann Mapping Theorem. Every open simply connected proper subset of C is analytically homeomorphic to the open unit disk in C.

Riemann Mapping Theorem (). Every open simply connected proper subset of C is analytically homeomorphic to the open unit disk in C.

IX.2. DESIGNER THEOREMS—THE AMSTHM PACKAGE 115

ewtheoremstyle{newnonum}{}{}{itshape}{}{fseries}{.}{ }%

{ hmname{#1} hmnote{ (mdseries #3)}}

heoremstyle{newnonum}

ewtheorem{newRiemann}{Riemann Mapping Theorem}

egin{newRiemann} Every open simply connected proper subset of $mathbb{C}$ is

analytically homeomorphic to the open unit disk in $mathbb{C}$.

end{newRiemann}

Then you can also produce Cauchy’s Theorem in Page 113 by typing heoremstyle{newnonum}

ewtheorem{newCauchy}{Cauchy’s Theorem}

egin{newCauchy}[Third Version]If $G$ is a simply connected open subset of

$mathbb{C}$, then for every closed rectifiable curve $gamma$ in $G$, we have

egin{equation*}

int_gamma f=0

end{equation*}

end{newCauchy}

The output will be exactly the same as that seen in Page 113. Now suppose you want to highlight certain theorems from other sources in your document, such as

Axiom 1 in [1]. Things that are equal to the same thing are equal to one another. This can be done as follows:

ewtheoremstyle{citing}{}{}{itshape}{}{fseries}{.}{ }{ hmnote{#3}}

heoremstyle{citing}

ewtheorem{cit}{}

egin{cit}[Axiom 1 in cite{eu}]

Things that are equal to the same thing are equal to one another.

end{cit}

Of course, your bibliography should include the citation with label eu.

IX.2.3. There is more!

There are some more predefined features in amsthm package. In all the different examples we have seen so far, the theorem number comes after the theorem name. Some prefer to have it the other way round as in

IX.2.1 Theorem (Euclid). The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180◦.

This effect is produced by the command swapnumbers as shown below: swapnumbers

heoremstyle{plain}

ewtheorem{numfirstthm}{Theorem}[section]

egin{numfirstthm}[Euclid]

The sum of the angles in a triangle is $180ˆcirc$

end{numfirstthm}

116 IX. TYPESETTING THEOREMS

Note that the swapnumbers command is a sort of toggle-switch, so that once it is given, all subsequent theorem-like statements will have their numbers first. If you want it the other way for some other theorem, then give swapnumbers again before its definition.

A quick way to suppress theoremnumbers is to use the

ewtheorem* command as in

ewtheorem*{numlessthm}{Theorem}[section]

egin{numlessthm}[Euclid]

The sum of the angles in a triangle is $180ˆcirc$.

end{numlessthm}

to produce

Euclid. The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180◦.

Note that this could also be done by leaving out #2 in the custom-head-spec parameter of

ewtheoremstyle, as seen earlier.

We have been talking only about theorems so far, but Mathematicians do not live by theorems alone; they need proofs. The amsthm package contains a predefined proof environment so that the proof of a theorem-like statement can be enclosed within egin {proof} … end{proof} commands as shown below:

egin{thmsec}

The number of primes is infinite.

end{thmsec}

egin{proof}

Let ${p_1,p_2,dotsc p_k}$ be a finite set of primes. Define $n=p_1p_2dotsm

p_k+1$. Then either $n$ itself is a prime or has a prime factor. Now $n$ is

neither equal to nor is divisible by any of the primes $p_1,p_2,dotsc p_k$ so

that in either case, we get a prime different from $p_1,p_2,dotsc p_k$. Thus

no finite set of primes can include all the primes.

end{proof}

to produce the following output

There is an optional argument to the proof environment which can be used to change the proofhead. For example,

egin{proof}[ extsc{Proof,(Euclid)}:]

egin{proof}

Let ${p_1,p_2,dotsc p_k}$ be a finite set of primes. Define $n=p_1p_2dotsm

p_k+1$. Then either $n$ itself is a prime or has a prime factor. Now $n$ is

neither equal to nor is divisible by any of the primes $p_1,p_2,dotsc p_k$ so

that in either case, we get a prime different from $p_1,p_2,dotsc p_k$. Thus

no finite set of primes can include all the primes.

end{proof}

Theorem IX.2.3. The number of primes is infinite.

Proof. Let{p1,p2,…pk}beafinitesetofprimes.Definen=p1p2···pk +1.Theneithernitself is a prime or has a prime factor. Now n is neither equal to nor is divisible by any of the primes p1,p2,…pk so that in either case, we get a prime different from p1,p2,…pk. Thus no finite set of primes can include all the primes.

IX.2. DESIGNER THEOREMS—THE AMSTHM PACKAGE 117

produces the following

Note that the end of a proof is automatically marked with a which is defined in the package by the command qedsymbol. If you wish to change it, use

enewcommand to redefine the qedsymbol. Thus if you like the original “Halmos symbol” to mark the ends of your proofs, include

ewcommand{halmos}{

ule{1mm}{2.5mm}}

enewcommand{qedsymbol}{halmos}

in the preamble to your document.

Again, the placement of the qedsymbol at the end of the last line of the proof is done

via the command qed. The default placement may not be very pleasing in some cases as in

It would be better if this is typeset as

which is achieved by the input shown below:

egin{proof}

This follows easily from the equation

egin{equation}

(x+y)ˆ2=xˆ2+yˆ2+2xy ag*{qed}

end{equation}

enewcommand{qed}{}

end{proof}

For this trick to work, you must have loaded the package amsmath without the leqno option. Or, if you prefer

Then you can use

PROOF (EUCLID): Let {p1,p2,…pk} be a finite set of primes. Define n = p1p2 ···pk + 1. Then either n itself is a prime or has a prime factor. Now n is neither equal to nor is divisible by any of the primes p1,p2,…pk so that in either case, we get a prime different from p1,p2 …pk. Thus no finite set of primes can include all the primes.

Theorem IX.2.4. The square of the sum of two numbers is equal to the sum of their squares and twice their product.

Proof. This follows easily from the equation

(x+y)2 =x2 +y2 +2xy

Theorem IX.2.5. The square of the sum of two numbers is equal to the sum of their squares and twice their product.

Proof. This follows easily from the equation

(x+y)2 =x2 +y2 +2xy

Proof. This follows easily from the equation

(x+y)2 =x2 +y2 +2xy

118 IX. TYPESETTING THEOREMS

egin{proof}

This follows easily from the equation

egin{equation*}

(x+y)ˆ2=xˆ2+yˆ2+2xyqed

end{equation*}

enewcommand{qed}{}

end{proof}

IX.3. HOUSEKEEPING

It is better to keep all

ewtheoremstyle commands in the preamble than scattering them all over the document. Better still, you can keep them together with other customization in a personal .sty file and load it using the usepackage command in the preamble. Also, within this .sty file, you can divide your

ewtheorem commands into groups and preface each group with the appropriate heoremstyle.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Euclid, The Elements, Greece 300 BC

TUTORIAL X

SEVERAL KINDS OF BOXES

The method of composing pages out of boxes lies at the very heart of TEX and many LATEX constructs are available to take advantage of this method of composition.

A box is an object that is treated by TEX as a single character. A box cannot be split and broken across lines or pages. Boxes can be moved up, down, left and right. LATEX has three types of boxes.

LR (left-right) The content of this box are typeset from left to right.

Par (paragraphs) This kind of box can contain several lines, which will be typeset in paragraph mode just like normal text. Paragraphs are put one on top of the other. Their widths are controlled by a user specified value.

Rule A thin or thick line that is often used to separate various logical elements on the output page, such as between table rows and columns and between running titles and the main text.

X.1. LR BOXES

The usage information of four types of LR boxes are given below. The first line considers the text inside the curly braces as a box, with or without a frame drawn around it. For

instance, fbox{some words} gives

but without the ruled frame around the text.

mbox{text} makebox{width}{pos}{text} fbox{text} framebox{width}{pos}{text}

whereas mbox will do the same thing,

The commands in the third and fourth lines are a generalization of the other com- mands. They allow the user to specify the width of the box and the positioning of text inside.

makebox{5cm}{some words} par

framebox{5cm}{r}{some words}

In addition to the centering the text with positional argument [c] (the default), you can position the text flush left ([l]). LATEX also offers you an [s] specifier that will stretch your text from the left margin to the right margin of the box provided it contains some stretchable space. The inter-word space is also stretchable and shrinkable to a certain extent.

With LATEX, the above box commands with arguments for specifying the dimensions of the box allow you to make use of four special length parameters: width, height,

119

some words

some words

some words

120 X. SEVERAL KINDS OF BOXES

depth and otalheight. They specify the natural size of the text, where otalheight is the sum of the height and depth.

framebox{A few words of advice}\[6pt]

framebox[5cm][s]{A few words of advice}\[6pt]

framebox{1.5width}{A few words of advice}

As seen in the margin of the current line, boxes with zero width can be used to make text stick out in the margin. This effect was produced by beginning the paragraph as follows:

makebox{0mm}{r}{$Leftrightarrow$}

As seen in the margin of the dots

The appearance of frameboxes can be controlled by two style parameters. fboxruleThe width of the lines comprising the box produced with the command fbox

or framebox. The default value in all standard classes is 0.4pt.

fboxsep The space left between the edge of the box and its contents by fbox or framebox.

The default value in all standard classes is 3pt.

fbox{Text in a box}

setlengthfboxrule{2pt}setlengthfboxsep{2mm}

fbox{Text in a box}

Another interesting possibility is to raise or lower boxes. This can be achieved by the very powerful

aisebox command, which has two obligatory and two optional pa- rameters, defined as follows:

aisebox{lift}{depth}{height}{contents}

An example of lowered and elevated text boxes is given below.

baseline upward baseline downward baseline

baseline

aisebox{1ex}{upward} baseline

aisebox{-1ex}{downward} baseline

A few words of advice

A few words of advice

A few words of advice

Text in a box

Text in a box

X.2. PARAGRAPH BOXES 121

As with makebox and framebox the LATEX implementation of

aisebox offers you the use of the lengths height, depth, otalheight and width in the first three argu- ments. Thus, to pretend that a box extends only 90% of its actual height above the baseline you could write:

aisebox{0pt}{0.9height}{text}

or to rotate a box around its lower left corner (instead of its reference point lying on the baseline), you could raise it by its depth first, e.g.:

$x_1$ doturn{fbox{Bad thing}}\

$x_2$ doturn{

aisebox{depth}\

{fbox{Bad thing}}}\

$x_3$ doturn{

aisebox{-height}\

{fbox{Bad thing}}} $x_4$

X.2. PARAGRAPH BOXES

Paragraph boxes are constructed using the parbox command or minipage environment. The text material is typeset in paragraph mode inside a box of width width. The vertical positioning of the box with respect to the text baseline is controlled by the one-letter optional parameter pos ([c], [t], and [b]).

The usage for parbox command is, parbox{pos}{width}{text}

whereas that of the minipage environment will be:

egin{minipage}{pos}{width} …here goes the text matter …

end{minipage}

The center position is the default as shown by the next example. You can also observe that LATEX might produce wide inter-word spaces if the measure is incredibly small.

x1 x2 x3 x4

This is the contents of the left- most parbox.

CURRENT LINE

This is the right-most parbox. Note that the typeset text looks sloppy because LATEX cannot nicely balance the material in these narrow columns.

The code for generating these three parbox’s in a row is given below:

parbox{.3s linewidth}

{This is the contents of the left-most parbox.} hfill CURRENT LINE hfill

parbox{.3s linewidth}{This is the right-most parbox. Note that the typeset

text looks sloppy because LaTeX{} cannot nicely balance the material in

these narrow columns.}

Bad thing

Bad thing

Bad thing

122 X. SEVERAL KINDS OF BOXES

The minipage environment is very useful for the placement of material on the page. In effect, it is a complete mini-version of a page and can contain its own footnotes, para- graphs, and array, tabular and multicols (we will learn about these later) environments. A simple example of minipage environment at work is given below. The baseline is indi- cated with a small line.

egin{minipage}{b}{.3linewidth}

The minipage environment creates a vertical box like the parbox command.

The bottom line of this minipage is aligned with the

end{minipage}hrulefill

egin{minipage}{c}{.3linewidth}

middle of this narrow parbox, which in turn is

end{minipage}hrulefill

egin{minipage}{t}{.3linewidth}

the top line of the right hand minipage. It is recommended that the user

experiment with the positioning arguments to get used to their effects.

end{minipage}

The minipage environment creates a vertical box like the parbox command. The bottom line of this minipage is aligned with the

middle of this narrow parbox, which in turn is

the top line of the right hand minipage. It is recommended that the user experiment with the positioning arguments to get used to their effects.

X.3. PARAGRAPH BOXES WITH SPECIFIC HEIGHT

In LATEX, the syntax of the parbox and minipage has been extended to include two more

optional arguments.

parbox{pos}{height}{inner pos}{width}{text}

is the usage for parbox command, whereas that of the minipage environment will be:

egin{minipage}{pos}{height}{inner pos}{width} …here goes the text matter …

end{minipage}

In both cases, height is a length specifying the height of the box; the parameters height, width, depth, and otalheight may be employed within the emph argument in the same way as in the width argument of makebox and framebox.

The optional argument inner pos states how the text is to be positioned internally, something that is only meaningful if height has been given. Its possible values are:

t To push the text to the top of the box.

b To shove it to the bottom.

c To center it vertically.

s To stretch it to fill up the whole box.

In the last case, we must specify the interline space we wish to have and the deviations allowed from this value as in the example below.

Note the difference between the external positioning argument pos and the internal one inner pos: the former states how the box is to be aligned with the surrounding text,

X.4. NESTED BOXES 123

while the latter determines how the contents are placed within the box itself. See an example below. We frame the minipages to make it more comprehensible.

See the code that generated the above boxed material:

egin{minipage}[b][3cm][t]{2cm}

This is a minipage with a height of 3 ̃cm with the text aligned

at the top.

end{minipage}hfill

egin{minipage}[b][3cm][c]{2cm}

In this minipage of same height, the text is vertically centered.

end{minipage}}hfill

egin{minipage}[b][3cm][b]{2cm}

In this third box of same height, text is aligned at the bottom.

end{minipage}hfill

egin{minipage}{b}{3cm}{s}{2cm}

aselineskip 10pt plus 2pt minus 2pt

In this fourth box of same height, the text is stretched to fill in the entire

vertical space.

end{minipage}

In the last minipage environment the command aselineskip gets the interline

space to be 10 points text allows it to be as low as 8 points or as high as 12 points. X.4. NESTED BOXES

The box commands described above may be nested to any desired level. Including an LR box within a parbox or a minipage causes no obvious conceptual difficulties. The opposite, a parbox within an LR box, is also possible, and is easy to visualize if one keeps in mind that every box is a unit, treated by TEX as a single character of the corresponding size.

This is a mini- page with a height of 3 cm with the text aligned at the top.

In this minipage of same height, the text is verti- cally centered.

In this third box of same height, text is aligned at the bottom.

In this fourth box of same height, the text is stretched to fill in the entire vertical space.

A parbox inside an fbox command has the effect that the entire parbox is framed. The present structure was made with

fbox{fbox{parbox{.75linewidth} {A parbox …}}}

This is a parbox of width .75linewidth inside an fbox inside a second fbox, which thus produces the double framing effect.

124 X. SEVERAL KINDS OF BOXES X.5. RULE BOXES

A rule box is basically a filled-in black rectangle. The syntax for the general command is:

ule{lift}{width}{height}

which produces a solid rectangle of width width and height height, raised above the

baseline by an amount lift. Thus

ule{8mm}{3mm}

generates

and

ule{3in}{.2pt}

generates

.

Without an optional argument lift, the rectangle is set on the baseline of the current line of the text. The parameters lift, width and height are all lengths. If lift has a negative value, the rectangle is set below the baseline.

It is also possible to have a rule box of zero width. This creates an invisible line with the given height. Such a construction is called a strut and is used to force a horizontal box to have a desired height or depth that is different from that of its contents.

TUTORIAL XI

FLOATS

XI.1. THE figure ENVIRONMENT

Figures are really problematical to present in a document because they never split between pages. This leads to bad page breaks which in turn leave blank space at the bottom of pages. For fine-tuning that document, the typesetter has to adjust the page breaks manually.

But LATEX provides floating figures which automatically move to suitable locations. So the positioning of figures is the duty of LATEX.

XI.1.1. Creating floating figures

Floating figures are created by putting commands in a figure environment. The con- tents of the figure environment always remains in one chunk, floating to produce good page breaks. The following commands put the graphic from figure.eps inside a floating figure:

egin{figure}

centering

includegraphics{figure.eps}

caption{This is an inserted EPS graphic}

label{fig1}

end{figure}

Features

• Theoptionallabelcommandcanbeusedwiththe

ef,andpagerefcommands to reference the caption. The label command must be placed immediately after the caption

• If the figure environment contains no caption commands, it produces an unnum- bered floating figure.

• If the figure environment contains multiple caption commands, it produces multi- ple figures which float together. This is useful in constructing side-by-side graphics or complex arrangements.

• A list of figures is generated by the listoffigures command.

• By default, the caption text is used as the caption and also in the list of figures. The caption has an optional argument which specifies the list-of-figure entry. For example,

caption[List Text]{Caption Text} 125

126

XI. FLOATS

• •

Figure XI.1: This is an inserted EPS graphic

causes “Caption Text” to appear in the caption, but “List Text” to appear in the list of figures. This is useful when using long, descriptive captions.

The figure environment can only be used in outer paragraph mode, preventing it from being used inside any box (such as parbox or minipage).

Figure environments inside the paragraphs are not processed until the end of the paragraph. For example:

……… text text text text text text

egin{figure}

………

end{figure}

……… text text text text text text

XI.1.2. Figure placement

The figure environment has an optional argument which allows users to specify possible figure locations. The optional argument can contain any combination of the letters: h, t, b, p.

h Place the figure in the text where the figure command is located. This option cannot be executed if there is not enough room remaining on the page.

t Place the figure at the top of the page.

b Place the figure at the bottom of a page.

p Place the figure on a page containing only floats.

If no optional arguments are given, the placement options default to [tbp].

When we input a float, LATEX will read that float and hold it until it can be placed at a better location. Unprocessed floats are those which are read by LATEX but have not yet been placed on the page. Though the float-placing is done by LATEX, sometimes the user has to invoke commands to process unprocessed floats. Following commands will do that job:

XI.1. THEfigureENVIRONMENT 127 clearpage This command places unprocessed floats and starts a new page.

FloatBarrier This command causes all unprocessed floats to be processed. This is provided by the placeins package. It does not start a new page, unlike clearpage.

Since it is often desirable to keep floats in the section in which they were issued, the section option

usepackage[section]{placeins}

redefines the section command, inserting a FloatBarrier command before each sec- tion. Note that this option is very strict. This option does not allow a float from the previous section to appear at the bottom of the page, since that is after the start of a new section.

The below option usepackage[below]{placeins}

is a less-restrictive version of the section option. It allows floats to be placed after the beginning of a new section, provided that some of the previous section appears on the page.

afterpage/clearpage Theafterpagepackageprovidestheafterpagecommandwhich executes a command at the next naturally-ocurring page break.

Therefore, using afterpage{clearpage} causes all unprocessed floats to be cleared at the next page break. afterpage{clearpage} is especially useful when producing small floatpage figures.

XI.1.3. Customizing float placement

The following style parameters are used by LATEX to prevent awkward-looking pages

which contain too many floats or badly-placed floats.

Float placement counters

opnumber

ottomnumber

otalnumber

The maximum number of floats allowed at the top of a text page (the default is 2).

The maximum number of floats allowed at the bottom of a text page (the default is 1).

The maximum number of floats allowed on any one text page (the de- fault is 3).

These counters prevent LATEX from placing too many floats on a text page. These counters do not affect float pages. Specifying a ! in the float placement options causes LATEX to ignore these parameters. The values of these counters are set with the setcounter command. For example,

setcounter{totalnumber}{2}

prevents more than two floats from being placed on any text page.

Figure fractions

The commands given below control what fraction of a page can be covered by floats (where “fraction” refers to the height of the floats divided by extheight). The first

128 XI. FLOATS

three commands pertain only to text pages, while the last command pertains only to float pages. Specifying a ! in the float placement options causes LATEX to ignore the first three parameters, but floatpagefraction is always used. The value of these fractions are set by

enewcommand. For example,

enewcommand{ extfraction}{0.3}

extfraction

opfraction

ottomfraction

floatpagefraction

The minimum fraction of a text page which must be occupied by text. The default is 0.2, which prevents floats from covering more than 80% of a text page.

The maximum fraction of a text page which can be occupied by floats at the top of the page. The default is 0.7, which prevents any float whose height is greater than 70% of extheight from being placed at the top of a page.

The maximum fraction of a text page which can be occupied by floats at the bottom of the page. The default is 0.3, which prevents any float whose height is greater than 40% of extheight from being placed at the bottom of a text page.

The minimum fraction of a float page that must be occupied by floats. Thus the fraction of blank space on a float page cannot be more than 1-floatpagefraction. The default is 0.5.

XI.1.4. Using graphics in LATEX

This section shows how graphics can be handled in LATEX documents. While LATEX can import virtually any graphics format, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is the easiest graphics format to import into LATEX. The ‘eps’ files are inserted into the file using command includegraphicsfile.eps

The includegraphics command

includegraphics[options]{filename}

The following options are available in includegraphics command:

width

height

totalheight

scale

angle

The width of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).

The height of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).

The totalheight of the graphics (in any of the accepted TEX units).

Scalefactorforthegraphic.Specifyingscale=2makesthegraphictwice as large as its natural size.

Specifies the angle of rotation, in degrees, with a counter-clockwise (anti- clockwise) rotation being positive.

Graphics search path

By default, LATEX looks for graphics files in any directory on the TEX search path. In addi- tion to these directories, LATEX also looks in any directories specified in the graphicspath command. For example,

graphicspath{{dir1/}{dir2/}}

XI.1. THEfigureENVIRONMENT 129

includegraphics[width=1in]{tex.png}

includegraphics[height=1.5in]{tex.png}

includegraphics[scale=.25,angle=45]{tex.png}

includegraphics[scale=.25,angle=90]{tex.png}

tells LATEX to look for graphics files also in dir1/ and dir2/. For Macintosh, this becomes graphicspath{{dir1:}{dir2:}}

Graphics extensions

The DeclareGraphicsExtensions command tells LATEX which extensions to try if a file with no extension is specified in the includegraphics command. For convenience, a default set of extensions is pre-defined depending on which graphics driver is selected. For example if dvips is used, the following graphics extensions (defined in dvips.def) are used by default

DeclareGraphicsExtensions{.eps,.ps,.eps.gz,.ps.gz,.eps.Z}

With the above graphics extensions specified, includegraphicsfile first looks for file.eps, then file.ps, then file file.eps.gz, etc. until a file is found. This allows the graphics to be specified with

includegraphics{file} instead of

130 XI. FLOATS

includegraphics{file.eps}

XI.1.5. Rotating and scaling objects

In addition to the includegraphics command, the graphicx package includes four other commands which rotate and scale any LATEX object: text, EPS graphic, etc.

scalebox{2}{includegraphics{file.eps}}

esizebox{4in}{!}{includegraphics{file.eps}}

otatebox{45}{includegraphics{file.eps}}

produces the same three graphics as

includegraphics[scale=2]{file.eps}

includegraphics[width=4in]{file.eps}

includegraphics[angle=45]{file.eps}

For example, the following are produced with

otatebox{45}{fbox{LARGE{LaTeX}}}

otatebox{180}{fbox{LARGE{LaTeX}}}

However, the includegraphics is preferred because it is faster and produces more efficient PostScript.

XI.2. THE table ENVIRONMENT

With the box elements already explained in the previous chapter, it would be possible to produce all sorts of framed and unframed tables. However, LATEXoffers the user far more convenient ways to build such complicated structures.

XI.2.1. Constructing tables

The environments tabular and tabular* are the basic tools with which tables can be

constructed. The syntax for these environments is: egin{tabular}[pos]{cols} rows end{tabular}

egin{tabular*}{width}[pos]{cols} rows end{tabular*}

Both the above environments actually create a minipage. The meaning of the above

arguments is as follows:

pos Vertical positioning arguments (see also the explanation of this argument for parboxes). It can take on the values:

LATEX

LATEX

width

cols

XI.2. THEtableENVIRONMENT 131 t The top line of the table is aligned with the baseline of the current

external line of text.

b The bottom line of the table is aligned with the external baseline.

With no positioning argument given, the table is centered on the external base- line.

This argument applies only to the tabular* environment and determines its overall width. In this case, the cols argument must contain the @-expression (see below) @{extracolsep{fill}} somewhere after the first entry. For the other two environments, the total width is fixed by the textual content.

The column formatting argument. There must be an entry for every column, as well as possible extra entries for the left and right borders of the table or for the inter-column spacings. The possible column formatting symbols are:

l

c

r {wd}

*{num}{cols}

The column contents are left justified.

The column contents are centered.

The column contents are right justified.

The text in this column is set into lines of width wd and the top line is aligned with the other columns. In fact, the text is set in a parbox with the command parbox[t]{wd}{column text}.

The column format contained in cols is reproduced num times, so that *{3}{|c|}| is the same as |c|c|c|.

The available formatting symbols for right and left borders and for the inter-column spacing are:

| Draws a vertical line.

∥ Draws two vertical lines next to each other.

@{text} This entry is referred to as an @-expression, and inserts

text in every line of the table between the two columns where it appears.

@-expression removes the inter-column spacing that is automatically put between each pair of columns. If white space is needed between the inserted text and the next col- umn, this must be explicitly included with hspace{ } within the text of the @-expression. If the inter-column spacing between two particular columns is to be something other than the standard, this may be easily achieved by placing @{hspace{wd}} between the ap- propriate columns in the formatting argument. This replaces the standard inter-column spacing with the width wd.

An extracolsep{wd} within an @-expression will put extra spacing of amount wd between all the following columns, until countermanded by another extracolsep com- mand. In contrast to the standard spacing, this additional spacing is not removed by later @-expression. In the abular* environment, there must be a command @{extracolsepfill} somewhere in the column format so that all the subsequent inter-column spacings can stretch out to fill the predefined table width.

If the left or right borders of the table do not consist of a vertical line, a spacing equal to half the normal inter-column spacing is added there. If this spacing is not required, it may be suppressed by including an empty @-expression @{} at the beginning or end of the column format.

132

rows

hline

XI. FLOATS

Contain the actual entries in the table, each horizontal row being terminated with \. These rows consist of a sequence of column entries separated from each other by the & symbol. Thus each row in the table contains the same number of column entries as in the column definition cols. Some entries may be empty. The individual column entries are treated by LATEXas though they were enclosed in braces { }, so that any change in type style or size are restricted to that one column.

This command may only appear before the first row or immediately after a row termination \. It draws a horizontal line the full width of the table below the row that was just ended, or at the top of the table if it comes at the beginning. Two hline commands together draw two horizontal lines with a little space between them.

cline{n − m}

This command draws a horizontal line from the left side of column n to the right side of column m. Like hline, it may only be given just after a row termination \, and there may be more than one after another. The command cline{1-3} cline{5-7} draws two horizontal lines from column 1 to 3 and from column 5 to 7, below the row that was just ended. In each case, the full column widths are underlined.

vline

This command draws a vertical line with the height of the row at the location where it appears. In this way, vertical lines that do not extend the whole height of the table may be inserted with a column.

multicolumn{num}{col}{text}

This command combines the following num columns into a single column with their total width including inter-column spacing. The argument col contains exactly one of the positioning symbols l, r, c, with possible @-expressions and vertical lines “. A value of 1 may be given for num when the positioning argument is to be changed for that column in one particular row.

In this context, a ‘column’ starts with a positioning symbol l, r, or c and includes everything upto but excluding the next one. The first column also includes everything before the first positioning symbol. Thus c@{}rl” contains three columns: the first is “c@{}, the second r, and the third r”.

XI.2.2. Table style parameters

There are a number of style parameters used in generating tables which LATEXsets to stan- dard values. These may be altered by the user, either globally within the preamble or locally inside an environment. They should not be changed within the tabular environ- ment.

• abcolsep is half the width of the spacing that is inserted between columns in the tabular and tabular* environments.

• arrayrulewidth is the thickness of the vertical and horizontal lines within a table.

• doublerulesep is the separation between the lines of a double rule.

• arraystretch can be used to change the distance between the rows of a table. This is a multiplying factor, with a standard value of 1. A value of 1.5 means that the inter-row spacing is increased by 50%. A new value is set by redefining the parameter with the command:

XI.2. THEtableENVIRONMENT 133

enewcommand{arraystrech}{factor}

Following are the commands for changing the table style parameters that relate to dimensions:

setlength abcolsep{dimen} setlengtharrayrulewidth{dimen} setlengthdoublerulesep{dimen}

XI.2.3. Example

Creating tables is much easier in practice than it would seem from the above list of

formatting possibilities. This is best illustrated with an example.

The simplest table consists of rows and columns in which the text entries are either centered or justified to one side. The column widths, the spacing between the columns, and thus the entire width of the table are automatically calculated.

Sample Tabular

col head

col head

col head

Left

centered

right aligned

aligned items

items

items

items right aligned

Left items

centered

See the code that generated the table above.

egin{tabular{l|c|r|}

hline

multicolumn{3{|c|}{Sample Tabular} hline

end{tabular}

The discussion on tables doesn’t conclude with this chapter, instead more bells and whistles are to be discussed, such as long tables (tables that span multiple pages), how to repeat the column headings and special footlines in all multipaged tables, color tables and also a few other embellishments, which the scientific community at large might require in their document preparation.

XI.2.4. Exercise

Here is an exercise you can try.

col head

hline

Left

aligned

items

Left items & centered & right aligned

hline

& col head & col head

& centered

& items

& items

& right \cline{1-2} & aligned \cline{2-3} & items \cline{1-2}

134 XI. FLOATS

Plan for TEX Users Group 2001–2003

Project

No.

Name

Year

2001

2002

2003

TEXLive production costs

Rs.

US$

Rs.

US$

Rs.

US$

Internet costs

Journal costs

Signature

Authorization

TUTORIAL XII

CROSS REFERENCES IN LATEX XII.1. WHY CROSS REFERENCES?

Cross reference is the technical term for quoting yourself. This is what you do when you say something like, “As I said earlier,. . .”. More seriously, in a written article you may often have occasion to refer the reader to something mentioned earlier (or sometimes to something yet to be said) in the same document. Thus you may have explained a new term in the second section of your article and when you use this term again in the fourth section, it is a matter of courtesy to the reader to point to the explanation. Again, in a mathematics article, you may have to cite an earlier result in the proof of the current result.

Such cross referencing can be done by hand, but if you revise your document and insert some new sections (or theorems) then changing all cross references manually is no easy task. It is always better to automate such tedious tasks. (After all what’s a computer for, if not to do such mundane jobs?)

XII.2. LET LATEX DO IT

The basic method of using cross references (see Section XII.1 for what we mean by cross reference) in LATEX is quite simple. Suppose that somewhere in the second section of your article, you want to refer to the first section. You assign a key to the first section using the command

section{section name}label{key}

and at the point in the second section where the reference is to be made, you type the

command

ef{key}

Thus the reference “see Section XII.1…” in the first sentence of this section was produced by including the command label{intro} in the command for the first section as

section{Why cross references}label{intro}

and the command

ef{intro} at the place of reference in the second section as

. . . (see Section

ef{intro} for. . .

Okay, the example is a bit silly, since the actual reference here is not really necessary, but you get the general idea, don’t you? Incidentally, the label{key} for a section need not be given immediately after the section{section name}. It can be given anywhere within the section.

135

136 XII. CROSS REFERENCES IN LATEX

The first time you run LATEX on a file named, say, myfile.tex containing cross refer- ences, the reference information is written in an auxiliary file named myfile.aux and at the end of the run LATEX prints a warning

LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.

LaTeX Warning: Label(s) may have changed.

Rerun to get cross-references right.

A second run gets the references right. The same thing happens when you’ve changed the reference information in any way, say, by adding a new section.

Though the key in label{key} can be any sequence of letters, digits or punctuation characters, it is convenient to use some mnemonic (such as label{limcon} for a section entitled “Limits and Continuity” rather than label{sec@#*?!}. Also, when you make a reference, it’s better to type ̃

ef{limcon} (notice the tie?) than

ef{limcon} to prevent the possibility of the reference number falling off the edge as in “ . . . see Section XII.1 for further details.. . . ”.

In addition to sectioning commands such as chapter or section, reference can also be made to an item entry in an enumerate environment, by attaching a label. For example the input

In the classical emph{syllogism}

egin{enumerate}

item All men are mortal.label{pre1}

item Socrates is a man.label{pre2}

item So Socrates is a mortal.label{con}

end{enumerate}

Statements (

ef{pre1}) and (

ef{pre2}) are the emph{premises} and

statement (

ef{con}) is the conclusion.

gives the following output

You must be a bit careful about references to tables or figures (technically, “floats”). For them, the label command should be given after the caption command or in its argument, as in the example below:

egin{table}[h]

egin{center}

setlength{extrarowheight}{5pt}

egin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|}

hline

Value of $x$ & 1 & 2 & 3\

hline

Value of $y$ & 1 & 8 & 27\

hline

end{tabular}

caption{Observed values of $x$ and $y$}label{tabxy}

In the classical syllogism

(1) All men are mortal.

(2) Socrates is a man.

(3) So Socrates is a mortal.

Statements (1) and (2) are the premises and statement (3) is the conclusion

XII.2. LET LATEX DO IT 137

end{center}

end{table}

Two possible relations betweeen $x$ and $y$ satisfying

the data in Table

ef{tabxy} are $y=xˆ3$ and

$y=6xˆ2-11x+6$

This produces the following output:

Table XII.1: Observed values of x and y

Two possible relations between x and y satisfying the data in Table XII.1

arey=x3 andy=6×2−11x+6

You can think of a caption command within a figure or table environment as a sort of sectioning command within the environment. Thus you can have several caption and label pairs within a single figure or table environment.

You can also make forward references in exactly the same way by

ef-ing to the key of some succeeding label such as “see Subsection XII.2.1 for a discussion of cross references in mathematics.”

XII.2.1. Cross references in math

Mathematical documents abound in cross references. There are references to theorems and equations and figures and whatnot. The method of reference is exactly as before. Thus if you’ve defined

ewtheorem{theorem}[subsection], then after typing

egin{theorem}label{diffcon}

Every differentiable function is continuous

end{theorem}

you get

XII.2.1.1 Theorem. Every differentiable function is continuous

and you can type elsewhere in the document

The converse of Theorem ̃

ef{diffcon} is false.

to get

The converse of Theorem XII.2.1.1 is false.

References can be made to equations as in the following examples:

egin{equation}label{sumsq}

(x+y)ˆ2=xˆ2+2xy+yˆ2

end{equation}

Changing $y$ to $-y$ in Equation ̃(

ef{sumsq}) gives the following

Value of x

1

2

3

Value of y

1

8

27

138 XII. CROSS REFERENCES IN LATEX

If you load the package amsmath, you can use the command eqref instead of

ef to make a reference to an equation. This automatically supplies the parantheses around the equation number and provides an italic correction before the closing parenthesis, if necessary. For example,

Equation eqref{sumsq} gives the following ……….

produces

Equation XII.1 gives the following ……….

References can be made to individual equations in multiline displays of equations produced by such environments as align or gather (defined in the amsmath package). The label command can be used within such a structure for subnumbering as in the example below:

egin{align}

(x+y)ˆ2&=xˆ2+2xy+yˆ2label{sum}\

(x-y)ˆ2&=xˆ2-2xy+yˆ2 ag{

ef{sum}a}

end{align}

XII.3. POINTING TO A PAGE—THE PACKAGE VARIOREF

In making a reference to a table or an equation, it is more to convenient (for the reader,

that is) to give the page number of the reference also. The command

pageref{key}

typesets the number of the page where the command label{key} was given. Thus for

example

see Table ̃

ef{tabxy} in page ̃pageref{tabxy}

in this document produces

see Table XII.1 in page 137

To avoid the tedium of repeated by typing

ef{key} on page pageref{key}

you can define the macro

(XII.1) (x+y)2 =x2 +2xy+y2 Changing y to −y in Equation (XII.1) gives the following

(XII.2) (x+y)2 =x2 +2xy+y2 (XII.2a) (x−y)2 =x2 −2xy+y2

XII.3. POINTING TO A PAGE—THE PACKAGE VARIOREF 139

ewcommand{fullref}[1]{

ef{#1} on page ̃pageref{#1}}

and use fullref for such references. But the trouble is that at times the referred object and the reference to it fall on the same page (with TEX you never know this till the end) so that you get a reference to the page number of the very page you are reading, which looks funny. This can be avoided by using the package varioref. If you load this package by including usepackage{varioref} in your preamble, then you can use the command

vref{key}

to refer to an object you’ve marked with label{key} elsewhere in the document. The ac- tion of vref varies according to the page(s) where the referred object and the references are typeset by TEX in the final output.

(1) If the object and the reference are on the same page, vref produces only a

ef sup- pressing pageref so that only the number pointing to the object is typeset, without any reference to the page number.

(2) If the object and the reference are on different pages whose numbers differ by more than one, vref produces both

ef and pageref.

(3) If the object and the reference fall on pages whose numbers differ by one (that is, on successive pages), vref produces

ef followed by the phrase “on the preceding page” or “on the following page” depending on whether the object or the reference occurs first. Moreover, in the next occurrence of vref in a situation of the same type, the phrases are changed to “on the next page” and the “page before” respectively.

This is the default behavior of vref in the article documentclass. If the article class is used with the twoside option or if the documentclass book is used, then the behavior in Case (3) above is a bit different.

(1) If the object and the reference fall on the two sides of the same leaf, the behavior of vref is as in (3) above.

(2) If the object and the reference fall on pages forming a double spread (that is, a page of even number followed by the next page), then vref produces

ef followed by the phrase “on the facing page”. Moreover, in the next occurence of vref in a situation of the same type, the phrases are changed to “on the preceding page” and “on the next page” respectively.

The phrases used in the various cases considered above can be customized by redefining the commands used in generating them. For the article class without the twoside option, reference to the previous page uses the command

eftextbefore and reference to the next page uses

eftextafter. In the case of the article class with the twoside option or the book class, the commands

eftextfaceafter and

eftextfacebefore are used in the case of reference to a page in a double spread. The default definitions of these commands are given below. In all these, the two arguments of the command

eftextvario are phrases alternatively used in the repeated use of the reference as mentioned above.

ewcommand{

eftextbefore}

{on the

eftextvario{preceding page}{page before}}

ewcommand{

eftextafter}

{on the

eftextvario{following}{next} page}

ewcommand{

eftextfacebefore}

{on the

eftextvario{facing}{preceding} page}

ewcommand{

eftextfaceafter}

{on the

eftextvario{facing}{next}{page}}

140 XII. CROSS REFERENCES IN LATEX

You can customize the phrases generated in various situations by redefining these with phrases of your choice in the arguments of

eftextvario.

If you want to refer only to a page number using varioref, you can use the com- mand

vpageref{key}

to produce the page number of the object marked with label{key}. The phrases used in the various special cases are the same as described above, except that when the referred object and the reference fall on the same page, either the phrase “on this page” or “on the current page” is produced. The command used to generate these is

eftextcurrent whose default definition is

ewcommand{

eftextcurrent}

{on

eftextvario{this}{the current} page}

You can change the phrases “this” and “the current” globally by redefining this com- mand. You can also make some local changes by using the two optional arguments that vpageref allows. Thus you can use the command

vpageref[same page phrase][other page phrase]{key}

to refer to the page number of the object marked with label{key}. The same page phrase will be used if the object and the reference fall on the same page and the phrase other page phrase will be used, if they fall on different pages. Thus for example, the command

see the vpageref[above table][table]{tabxy}

given in this document will produce

see the above table

if the reference occurs on the same page as Table XII.1 and see the table on page 137

if they fall on different pages.

XII.4. POINTING OUTSIDE—THE PACKAGE XR

Sometimes you may want to refer to something in a document other than the one you are working on. (This happens, for instance if you keep an article as separate files.) The package xr allows such external references.

If you want to refer to objects in a file named other.tex in your current document, load the package xr and set the external document as other.tex using the commands

usepackage{xr} externaldocument{other}

in the preamble of the current document. Then you can use the

ef and pageref to refer to anything that has been marked with the label command in either the current document or other.tex. Any number of such external documents can be specified.

If the same key is used to mark different objects in two such documents, there’ll be a conflict. To get over this, you can use the optional argument available in externaldocument command. If you say

externaldocument[a-]{other}

then a reference to label{key} in other.tex could be made by

ef{a-key}. The prefix need not be a-; it can be any convenient string.

XII.5. LOST THE KEYS? USE lablst.tex 141 XII.5. LOST THE KEYS? USE lablst.tex

One of the conveniences of using keys for cross references is that you need not keep track of the actual numbers, but then you’ll have to remember the keys. You can produce the list of keys used in a document by running LATEX on the file lablst.tex. In our system, we do this by first typing

latex lablst

LATEX responds as follows:

*********************************

* Enter input file name

* without the .tex extension:

*********************************

lablstfile=

We type in the file name as cref which is the source of this document and is presented

with another query.

**********************************************

* Enter document class used in file cref.tex

* with no options or extension:

**********************************************

lablstclass=

So we type article. And is asked

********************************************

* Enter packages used in file cref.tex

* with no options or extensions:

********************************************

lablstpackages=

Here only those packages used in the article which define commands used in section titles etc. need be given. So we type

amsmath,array,enumerate

This produces a file lablst.dvi which can be viewed to see a list of keys used in the document.

Finally if your text editor is GNU Emacs, then you can use its RefTeX package to auto- mate generation, insertion and location of keys at the editing stage.

142

TUTORIAL XIII

FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

LATEX has facilities to typeset “inserted” text, such as footnotes, marginal notes, figures and tables. This chapter looks more closely at different kinds of notes.

XIII.1. FOOTNOTES

Footnotes are generated with the command

footnote{footnote text}

which comes immediately after the word requiring an explanation in a footnote. The text footnote text appears as a footnote in a smaller typeface at the bottom of the page. The first line of the footnote is indented and is given the same footnote marker as that inserted in the main text. The first footnote on a page is separated from the rest of the page text by means of a short horizontal line.

The standard footnote marker is a small, raised number1, which is sequentially num- bered.

Footnotes produced with the footnote command inside a minipage environment use the mpfootnote counter and are typeset at the bottom of the parbox produced by the minipage2 .

However, if you use the footnotemark command in a minipage it will produce a footnote mark in the same style and sequence as the main text footnotes—i.e., stepping the mpfootnote counter and using the hefootnote command for the representation. This behavior allows you to produce a footnote inside your minipage that is typeset in se- quence with the main text footnotes at the bottom of the page: you place a footnotemark inside the minipage and the corresponding footnotetext after it. See below:

egin{minipage}{5cm}

Footnotes in a minipage are numbered

using lowercase letters.footnote{%

Inside minipage} par This text

references a footnote at the bottom

of the page.footnotemark

end{minipage}

footnotetext{At bottom of page}

The footnote numbering is incremented throughout the document for the article class, where it is reset to 1 for each new chapter in the report and book classes.

1See how the footnote is produced: “ … raised number footnote{See how the footnote is produced: … }.

2With nested minipages, the footnote comes after the next endminipage command, which could be at the wrong place.

Footnotes in a minipage are num- bered using lowercase letters.a

This text references a footnote at the bottom of the page.3

aInside minipage

3At bottom of page.

143

144 XIII. FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

XIII.1.1. Footnotes in tabular material

Footnotes appearing inside tabular material are not typeset by standard LATEX. Only tabularx and longtable environments will treat footnotes correctly. But footnotes used in these tables won’t appear just following the tables, but would appear at the bottom of the page just like the footnotes used in the text. But in longtable you can place the footnotes as table notes by placing the longtable in a minipage. See below:

Table XIII.1: PostScript type 1 fonts

Couriera Nimbusb

URW Antiquab URW Groteskb Utopiac

cour, courb, courbi, couri unmr, unmrs

uaqrrc

ugqp

putb, putbi, putr, putri

aDonated by IBM. bDonated by URW GmbH. cDonated by Adobe.

egin{minipage}{.47 extwidth}

enewcommand{ hefootnote}{ hempfootnote}

egin{longtable}{ll}

caption{PostScript type 1 fonts}\

Courierfootnote{Donated by IBM.} & cour,courb,courbi,couri \

Nimbusfootnote{Donated by URW GmbH.} & unmr, unmrs \

URW Antiquafootnotemark[value{mpfootnote}] & uaqrrc\

URW Groteskfootnotemark[value{mpfootnote}] & ugqp\

Utopiafootnote{Donated by Adobe.} & putb, putbi, putr, putri

end{longtable}

end{minipage}

You can also put your tabular or array environment inside a minipage environ- ment, since in that case footnotes are typeset just following that environment. Note the redefinition of hefootnote that allows us to make use of the footnotemark command inside the minipage environment. Without this redefinition footnotemark would have generated a footnote mark in the style of the footnotes for the main page.

egin{minipage}{.5linewidth}

enewcommand{ hefootnote}{ hempfootnote}

egin{tabular}{ll}

multicolumn{2}{c}{fseries PostScript type 1 fonts} \

Courierfootnote{Donated by IBM.} & cour,courb,courbi,couri \

Charterfootnote{Donated by Bitstream.} & bchb,bchbi,bchr,bchri\

Nimbusfootnote{Donated by URW GmbH.} & unmr, unmrs \

URW Antiquafootnotemark[value{mpfootnote}] & uaqrrc\

URW Groteskfootnotemark[value{mpfootnote}] & ugqp\

Utopiafootnote{Donated by Adobe.} & putb, putbi, putr, putri

end{tabular}

end{minipage}

XIII.1. FOOTNOTES 145

Couriera Charterb Nimbusc

URW Antiquac URW Groteskc Utopiad

cour, courb, courbi, couri bchb, bchbi, bchr, bchri unmr, unmrs

uaqrrc

ugqp

putb, putbi, putr, putri

PostScript type 1 fonts

aDonated by IBM. bDonated by Bitstream. cDonated by URW GmbH. dDonated by Adobe.

Of course this approach does not automatically limit the width of the footnotes to the width of the table, so a little iteration with the minipage width argument might be necessary.

Another way to typeset table notes is with the package threeparttable by Donald Arseneau. This package has the advantage that it indicates unambiguously that you are dealing with notes inside tables and, moreover, it gives you full control of the actual refer- ence marks and offers the possibility of having a caption for our tabular material. In this sense, the threeparttable environment is similar to the nonfloating table environment.

egin{threeparttable}

caption{ extbf{PostScript type 1 fonts}}

egin{tabular}{ll}

Courier note{a} & cour, courb, courbi, couri\

Charter note{b} & bchb, bchbi, bchr, bchri \

Nimbus note{c} & unmr, unmrs \

URW Antiqua note{c} & uaqrrc\

URW Grotesk note{c} & ugqp\

Utopia note{d} & putb, putbi, putr, putri

end{tabular}

egin{tablenotes}

item[a] Donated by IBM.

item[b] Donated by Bitstream.

item[c] Donated by URW GmbH.

item[d] Donated by Adobe.

end{tablenotes}

end{threeparttable}

Table 14.2: PostScript type 1 fonts

Couriera Charterb Nimbusc

URW Antiquac URW Groteskc Utopiad

cour, courb, courbi, couri bchb, bchbi, bchr, bchri unmr, unmrs

uaqrrc

ugqp

putb, putbi, putr, putri

a Donated by IBM.

b Donated by Bitstream.

c DonatedbyURWGmbH. d Donated by Adobe.

146 XIII. FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

XIII.1.2. Customizing footnotes

If the user wishes the footnote numbering to be reset to 1 for each section command

with the article class, this may be achieved by putting

setcounter{footnote}{0}

before every section or using the following command at preamble4 @addtoreset{footnote}{section}

The internal footnote counter has the name footnote. Each call to footnote increments this counter by one and prints the new value in Arabic numbering as the footnote marker. A different style of marker can be implemented with the command

enewcommand{ hefootnote}{number style}{footnote}

where number style is one of the counter print commands; arabic,

oman, Roman, alph, or Alph. However, for the counter footnote, there is an additional counter print command available, fnsymbol, which prints the counter values 1–9 as one of nine sym- bols:

⋆ † ‡ § ¶ ∥ ⋆⋆ †† ‡‡

It is up to the user to see that the footnote counter is reset to zero sometime before the tenth footnote call is made. If the user wants to add values above nine, then he has to edit the definition of fnsymbol. See an example, which allows up to 12 footnotes without resetting the counter:

makeatletter

def@fnsymbol#1{ensuremath{ifcase#1or *or daggeror ddaggeror

mathsectionor mathparagraphor |or **or daggerdagger

or ddaggerddaggeror mathsectionmathsection

or mathparagraphmathparagraph or ||else@ctrerrfi}}

enewcommand{ hefootnote}{fnsymbol{footnote}}

makeatother

An optional argument may be added to the footnote command: footnote[num]{footnote text}

where num is a positive integer that is used instead of the value of the footnote counter for the marker. In this case, the footnote counter is not incremented. For example∗∗,

enewcommand{ hefootnote}{fnsymbol{footnote}}

For examplefootnote[7]{The 7$ˆ{

m th}$ symbol …. marker.},

enewcommand{ hefootnote}{arabic{footnote}}

where the last line is necessary to restore the footnote marker style to its standard form. Otherwise, all future footnotes would be marked with symbols and not with numbers.

XIII.1.3. Footnote style parameters

The appearance of the standard footnote can be changed by customizing the parameters

listed below:

footnotesize The font size used inside footnotes.

4 This command will only work within makeatletter and makeatother. ∗∗The 7th symbol appears as the footnote marker.

XIII.2. MARGINAL NOTES 147

footnotesep The height of a strut placed at the beginning of every footnote. If it is greater than the aselineskip used for footnotesize, then additional vertical space will be inserted above each footnote.

skipfootins A low-level TEX command that defines the space between the main text and the start of the footnotes. You can change its value with the setlength or addtolength commands by putting skipfootins into the first argu- ment, e.g.,

addtolength{skipfootins}{3mm}

footnoterule A macro to draw the rule separating footnotes from the main text. It is executed right after the vertical space of skipfootins. It should take zero vertical space, i.e., it should use a negative skip to compensate for any positive space it occupies, for example:

enewcommand{footnoterule{vspace*{-3pt}%

ule{.4columnwidth}{0.4pt}vspace*{2.6pt}

You can also construct a fancier “rule” e.g., one consisting of a series of dots:

enewcommand{footnoterule}{vspace*{-3pt}%

qquaddotfillqquadvspace*{2.6pt}}

XIII.2. MARGINAL NOTES marginpar{left-text}{right-text}

The marginpar command generates a marginal note. This command typesets the text

given as an argument in the margin, the first line at the same height as the line in the

main text where the marginpar command occurs. The marginal note appearing here This

was generated with

… command occursmarginpar{This is a marginal note}. The …

is a margi- nal note

When only the mandatory argument right-text is specified, then the text goes to the right margin for one-sided printing; to the outside margin for two-sided printing; and to the nearest margin for two-column formatting. When you specify an optional argument, it is used for the left margin, while the second (mandatory) argument is used for the right.

There are a few important things to understand when using marginal notes. First, marginpar command does not start a paragraph, that is, if it is used before the first word of a paragraph, the vertical alignment may not match the beginning of the para- graph. Secondly, if the margin is narrow, and the words are long (as in German), you may have to precede the first word by a hspace{0pt} command to allow hyphenation of the first word. These two potential problems can be eased by defining a command marginlabel{text}, which starts with an empty box mbox{}, typesets a marginal note ragged left, and adds a hspace{0pt} in front of the argument.

ewcommand{marginlabel}[1]

{mbox{}marginpar{

aggedlefthspace{0pt}#1}}

By default, in one-sided printing the marginal notes go on the outside margin. These defaults can be changed by the following declarations:

eversemarginpar Marginal notes go into the opposite margin with respect to the de- fault one.

ormalmarginpar Marginal notes go into the default margin.

148 XIII. FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

XIII.2.1. Uses of marginal notes

marginpar{} can be used to draw attention to certain text passages by marking them with a vertical bar in the margin. The example marking this paragraph was made by including

marginpar{

ule[-10.5mm]{1mm}{10mm}}

inthefirstline. Bydefiningamacroqueryasshownbelow

defquery#1#2{underline{#1}marginpar{#2}}

Hey! we can produce queries. For example LATEX. This query is produced with the following

Look

command.

For example query{LaTeX}{Hey!\ Look}{}. This …

XIII.2.2. Style parameters for marginal notes

The following style parameters may be changed to redefine how marginal notes appear:

Determines the width of the margin box.

Sets the separation between the margin box and the edge of the main text.

Is the smallest vertical distance between two marginal notes.

These parameters are all lengths and are assigned new values as usual with the

setlength command.

XIII.3. ENDNOTES

Scholarly works usually group notes at the end of each chapter or at the end of the document. These are called endnotes. Endnotes are not supported in standard LATEX, but they can be created in several ways.

The package endnotes (by John Lavagnino) typesets endnotes in a way similar to footnotes. It uses an extra external file, with extension .ent, to hold the text of the endnotes. This file can be deleted after the run since a new version is generated each time.

With this package you can output your footnotes as endnotes by simply giving the command:

enewcommand{footnote}{endnote}

The user interface for endnotes is very similar to the one for footnotes after sub- stituting the word “foot” for “end”. The following example shows the principle of the use of endnotes, where you save text in memory with the endnote command, and then typeset all accumulated text material at a point in the document controlled by the user.

This is simple text.endnote{The first

endnote.} This is simple text.endnote{%

The second endnote.} This is simple

text.endnote{The third endnote.}

heendnotesigskip

This is some more simple text

marginparwidth

marginparsep

marginparpush

This is simple text.1 This is simple text.2 This is simple text.3

Notes

1The first endnote. 2The second endnote. 3The third endnote.

This is some more simple text

GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE

Version 1.2, November 2002

Copyright ⃝c 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple

Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license

document, but changing it is not allowed.

0 PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or non- commercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

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This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

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149

150 XIII. FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

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The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

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XIII.3. ENDNOTES 151

remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

(2) VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public- standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Trans- parent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well

152 XIII. FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

(4) MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the condi- tions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

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(D) Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

(E) Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other

copyright notices.

(F) Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public

permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form

shown in the Addendum below.

(G) PreserveinthatlicensenoticethefulllistsofInvariantSectionsandrequiredCover

Texts given in the Document’s license notice.

(H) Include an unaltered copy of this License.

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(J) Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

(K) For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Ti- tle of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

(L) Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

(M) Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

(N) Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

XIII.3. ENDNOTES 153

(O) Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but en- dorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

(5) COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original docu- ments, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such sec- tion unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same ad- justment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

(6) COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various

154 XIII. FOOTNOTES, MARGINPARS, AND ENDNOTES

documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individu- ally under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

(7) AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Doc- ument, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Docu- ment’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

(8) TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with trans- lations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warrany Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

(9) TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

XIII.3. ENDNOTES 155 (10) FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (C) year your name. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documenta- tion License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back- Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with. . . Texts.” line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being list their titles, with the Front-Cover Texts being list, and with the Back-Cover Texts being list.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.