# CS计算机代考程序代写 B tree ocaml CSE 130, Spring 2012 Name/ID Instructor: Ranjit Jhala

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Name/ID Instructor: Ranjit Jhala
Midterm Exam
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The points for each part are rough indication of the time that part should take.
Run LATEX again to produce the table

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 1 of ?? 1. [?? points]
(a) [5 points] What type does Ocaml infer for (<.>) let (<.>) = fun f g x -> f (g x)
(b) [5 points] What does the following expression evaluate to? (The <.>) is as defined for the previous part.)
let foo = fun x -> x + 10 in
let bar = fun x -> x * 10 in
let goo = foo <.> bar in
goo 0
(c) [10 points] Write a tail-recursive function whose behavior is identical to the function below:
let rec giftList l = match l with
| [] -> “that’s what I want for Christmas!”
| g::l’ -> g ˆ ” and ” ˆ giftList l’

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 2 of ?? 2. [?? points]
In this question, we have given you three concrete recursive functions. Your goal is to write generalized (polymorphic, higher-order) versions of the functions that encapsulate the recursion pattern and make it easily reusable.
(a) [4 points] let rec getEven xs = match xs with | [] -> None
| x::xs’ -> if (x mod 2 = 0)
then Some x
else getEven xs’
WhatisthetypeofgetEven?(Recall:type ’a option = None | Some of ’a)
(b) [6 points] Write a function:
val find_first: (’a -> bool) -> ’a list -> ’a option suchthatgetEvenisequivalenttofindFirst (fun x -> x mod 2 = 0)
let rec find_first f xs = match xs with |[] ->
| x::xs’ ->
(c) [3 points] Consider the tree type
type ’a tree = Leaf | Node of ’a * ’a tree * ’a tree
What is the type of the following function tree_to_string
let rec tree_to_string t = match t with
| Leaf -> “”
| Node(x, l, r) -> let ls = tree_to_string l in
let rs = tree_to_string r in
ls ˆ “, ” ˆ x ˆ “, ” ˆ rs

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 3 of ??
(d) [7 points] Write a function
val post_fold: (’a -> ’b -> ’b -> ’b) -> ’b -> ’a tree -> ’b such that tree_to_string is equivalent to
post_fold (fun x ls rs -> ls ˆ “, ” ˆ x ˆ “, ” ˆ rs) “”
let rec post_fold f b t = match t with
| Leaf ->
| Node (x,l,r) ->
(e) [10 points] Write a function
val in_fold: (’a -> ’b -> ’a) -> ’a -> ’b tree -> ’a suchthattree_to_stringisequivalenttoin_fold (fun str x -> str ˆ “, ” ˆ x ˆ “, “) “”
let rec in_fold f b t = match t with
| Leaf ->
| Node (x,l,r) ->

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 4 of ?? 3. [?? points]
Consider the following datatype
type (’a, ’b) either = Left of ’a | Right of ’b
The either type is a generalization of option which instead of just representing the junk value as None, allows you
to attach some information of type ’a.
(a) [2 points] Write down an expression that has the type
(int, string) either
and also has the type (int, bool) either
(Say what?! How can an expression have two types? Remember [] can have type int list and also have type string list.)
(b) [2 points] Write down an expression that has the type
(int, string) either
but does not have the type (int, bool) either
(c) [6 points] Write a function
val assoc: ’k -> (’k * ’v) list -> (’k, ’v) either
The function should have the following behavior:
# assoc “z” [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2); (“z”, 3); (“z”, 4)] ;;
– : (string, int) either = Right 3
# assoc “z” [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2)] ;;
– : (string, int) either = Left “z”
let rec assoc key kvs = match kvs with
| [] ->
| (k,v)::kvs’ ->

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 5 of ??
(d) [7 points] Write a function
val map: (’b -> ’c) -> (’a, ’b) either -> (’a, ’c) either
The function should have the following behavior:
# map (fun i -> i + 1) (Left “x”)
– : (string, int) either = Left “x”
# map (fun i -> i + 1) (Right 12)
– : (’a, int) either = Right 13
# map string_of_int (Right 12)
– : (’a, string) either = Right “12”
let map f e =
(e) [8 points] Write a function
val map2: (’b ->’c ->’d) -> (’a,’b) either -> (’a,’c) either -> (’a,’d) either
The function should have the following behavior:
# map2 (+) (Left “x”) (Left “y”) ;;
– : (string, int) either = Left “x”
# map2 (+) (Left “x”) (Right 12) ;;
– : (string, int) either = Left “x”
# map2 (+) (Right 12) (Left “x”) ;;
– : (string, int) either = Left “x”
# map2 (+) (Right 12) (Right 7) ;;
– : (’a, int) either = Right 19
let map2 f e1 e2 =

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 6 of ?? 4. [?? points]
Consider the following (subset) of Nano-ML.
type binop = Plus | Div
type expr = Const of int | Var of string | Bin of expr * binop * expr
As you doubtless know, the evaluation of certain expressions can result in errors such as unbound variables and divide- by-zeros. Instead of using exceptions as (in the programming assignment) we will track errors via the type:
type error = UnboundVariable of string | DivideByZero
(a) [5 points] Use the function assoc above to write a function
val lookup: string -> (string * int) list -> (error, int) either The function should have the following behavior:
# lookup “z” [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2); (“z”, 3); (“z”, 4)];;
– : (error, int) either = Right 3
# lookup “z” [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2)] ;;
– : (error, int) either = Left (UnboundVariable “z”)
let lookup x env =
(b) [5 points] Write a function
val safeDiv: int -> int -> (error, int) either
SuchthatsafeDiv n mreturnstheintegerresultn/mwhenitisdefined(i.e.whenmisnotzero)andreturnsthe divide-by-zero error otherwise. Concretely, your function should have the following behavior:
# safeDiv 40 2;;
– : (error, int) either = Right 20
# safeDiv 40 0;;
– : (error, int) either = Left DivideByZero
let safeDiv n m =

CSE 130, Spring 2012 Midterm Exam Page 7 of ??
(c) [10 points] Use the function lookup to write a function
val eval: (string * int) list -> expr -> (error, int) either The function should have the following behavior:
# let e0 = Bin (Var “x”, Plus, Var “y”);;
# let e1 = Bin (e0, Div, Var “y”);;
# eval [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2)] e1;;
– : (error, int) either = Right 1
# let e2 = Bin (e1, Div, Var “z”);;
# eval [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2)] e2;;
– : (error, int) either = Left (UnboundVariable “z”)
# let e3 = Bin (e1, Div, Const 0);;
# eval [(“x”, 1); (“y”, 2)] e3;;
– : (error, int) either = Left DivideByZero
let rec eval env e = match e with
| Const i ->
| Var v ->
| Bin(e1, Plus, e2) ->
| Bin(e1, Div, e2) ->