# CS代考程序代写 How to do Statistical Research

How to do Statistical Research

How to do a Statistical Project and Write a Proposal and Paper for this project

By Lynn Kuo

Obtain research ideas by

Taking classes

Attending seminars

Reading books, journals, newspapers

Consulting

Collaboration

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Preliminary Work, Go to HuskyCT, this course

If you need an interesting data set, go to the folder “Data sets”, browse the file “Source for useful data”.

Go to the folder “Recommended Reading”, read “Tips on Writing”. Please read this article several times throughout the semester, it should help you to improve your writing.

In the same folder, browse writing sample (1), writing sample (2), writing sample #3, writing sample #4, and writing sample #5 to gain some knowledge on what I consider to be good papers.

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Purpose of the Project: Actually do statistics; Any topic; Make it interesting

Step 1: Find a topic which

interests you

you know something about

you can research easily

Write out topic and brainstorm.

Select your paper’s specific topic from this brainstorming list.

In a sentence or short paragraph, describe what you think your paper is about.

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Step 2: Initial Planning, Investigation, and Outlining

Form a hypothesis, design a study, conduct the study, make notes.

Collect the data (with time constraints, this can be substituted by finding a data set collected by others); Describe the data.

Make a tentative outline to guide writing

Reorganize notes, fill in the tentative outline.

Make a final outline, reorganize notes accordingly.

As you decide where you will use outside resources in your paper, note the use of outside resources in a different font or text color from the rest of your outline. It is important to maintain a clear distinction between your own words (ideas) and those of others.

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Step 3: Analyze Data; Describe your Statistical Methods

Perform data analysis

Write the paper, describe the statistical methods

Use your outline to guide you

Summarize the results of data analysis

Write quickly—capture flow of ideas—deal with proofreading later

Put aside overnight, if possible

Fill in details on the writing

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Step 4: Make conclusion

Discuss limitations of the paper

Anticipate future research

Recap the whole paper

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Step 5: Revise and Proofread

Check organization—reorganize paragraphs and add transitions where necessary.

Make sure all researched information is documented.

Rework introduction and conclusion.

Work on sentences—check spelling, punctuation, word choice, etc.

Read out loud to check for flow.

Find a classmate to proofread each other’s paper. Turn on track changes in MS word to mark suggested changes.

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Proposal

Clearly state your hypotheses.

Explain your explanatory and response variables and how you have collected the data. If you use human subjects, you must also make sure that your study will be safe and ethical (anonymous, able to quit at any time, informed consent).

Anticipate appropriate statistical methods to be used for analyzing data.

Entertain the conclusion from your analysis.

If your proposal is not approved, please revise it according to your grader’s comments.

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Rubric for the proposal (around 1 page), due February 22th, 2020

(i) Introduction: introducing the topic and why you have chosen this topic (3-5 lines). Mention briefly the current related research (cite sources).

(ii) Formulate a research hypothesis in the chosen topic. Describe briefly why you select such a hypothesis and its importance in the field (cite sources).

(iii) Provide a brief description of your data set (for instance: number of rows (observations), number of variables, variables of interest, nature of the variables) and the source of your data set if it is not collected by yourself.

(iv) Describe briefly (5-7 lines) your plan of action. If you choose to apply any specific statistical methods, please mention and cite them. Please be consistent here with your research hypothesis. Write a line regarding how the methods would help in investigating the research hypothesis.

(v) Finally mention your intuitions and expectations from the research hypothesis. What do you expect to find and why do you feel so.

20 points for each of the above 5 items. The proposal should have at least two cited sources. (5 Bonus points for each well-cited source).

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First Draft: due April 5th

1. Introduction

Rubric: Complete=30 pts

Describes the context of the research

Has a clearly stated question of interest

Clearly defines the parameter of interest and states correct hypotheses

Thorough literature search

Question of interest is of appropriate difficulty

Minimal=10 pts

Briefly describes the context of the research

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2.Data Collection

Complete=20 pts

Method of data collection is clearly described

Includes appropriate randomization

Describes efforts to reduce bias, variability, confounding

Quantity of data collected or downloaded is appropriate

Minimal=5 pts

Some evidence of data collection

or

Source of downloaded data

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3. Graphs and Summary Statistics

Complete=10 Bonus pts

Appropriate graphs are included

Graphs are neat, clearly labeled, and easy to compare

Appropriate summary statistics are included

Graphs and summary statistics are used to give a preliminary answer to the question of interest

Minimal=2 Bonus pts

Graphs or summary statistics are included

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4. Analysis

Complete=30pts Minimal=10pts

Correct inference procedure is chosen

Justifies use of inference procedure

Test statistic/P-value or confidence interval is calculated correctly

P-value or confidence interval is interpreted correctly

Inference procedure is attempted

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5. Conclusion

Complete = 20 pts Minimal =5 pts

Uses P-value/confidence interval to correctly answer question of interest

Discusses what inferences are appropriate based on study design (population/cause-effect)

Shows good evidence of critical reflection (discusses Type I and Type II errors, limitations, etc.)

Makes a conclusion

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6. Overall Presentation/Communication

Complete = 10 bonus pts Minimal= 0 bonus pts

Communication and organization are very poor

Clear, holistic understanding of the project

Paper is well organized, neat and easy to read

Statistical vocabulary is used correctly

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Rubric for the first draft (summary of previous pages:

(1) Define an interesting problem supported with a critical literature review (30 points).

(2) Identify or choose—and justify—the measurement system; Design the collection of data; Piloting and discerning “exploratory” data analysis (20 points).

(3) Hypothesis generation for the problem stated in (1), and statistical methods, inferential data analysis, and interpretation of results (30 points).

(4) Draw and contextualize conclusions and references, writing proficiency (20 points)

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Deadline and Rubric for the Final Paper

Deadline: May 3rd.

Rubric for the final version:

1. Interesting topic (20 points);

2. Data, hypothesis, and methods (30 points);

3. Writing skill, conclusion, and references (20 points);

4. Incorporate comments from the first draft (30 points).

– All graphs, figures, should be accompanied with suitable titles, legends, headings, and captions.

– Attach codes in an appendix.

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From Terence’s Stuff: How to do Statistical Research

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Xiao-Li Meng: X-L Files: Rejection Pursuit, http://bulletin.imstat.org/2013/08/1562/

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References

(I) Terry Speed: Terence’s Stuff: How to do Statistical Research, https://www4.stat.ncsu.edu/~davidian/st810a/speed.pdf.

(II) Xiao-Li Meng: X-L Files: Rejection Pursuit, http://imstat.org/2013/08/29/1562/.

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