# CS代考 10/20/21 – cscodehelp代写

10/20/21
Tutorial 11: Parsing
Q1; Factor the following grammar: C¨if E then S | if E then S else S C¨if E then S [else S | null]
::= | | , | ,
::= | | , [ | ]
Q2: Show that an LL(0) parser for this grammar would be inefficient.
S Input: i*i
E T+E T
S¨E E¨T+E | T T¨i*T | i
i * T i*i*ii
from
input Fail, no *
i
Fail, no +
i, 2nd i from the input
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Q2a: Complete the parsing: i*i
S¨E E¨T+E | T T¨i*T | i
i * T
S Input: i*i
E
T+E T
i Fail, no + i * T
i
i*i*ii i*i*ii
from input
Fail, no *
i, 2nd i from from
the input
Fail, no *
i, 2nd i from the input
input
Q3: How do you improve upon the grammar in Question 2? Show how you parse the sentence i * i with your new grammar.
S¨E E¨T+E | T T¨i*T | i
S Input: i*i T¨i [*T | null] E
T i*i
E¨T [+E | null]
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Q4: What problem will you encounter parsing the grammar below using an LL(0) parser?
E¨I | BE BE¨I = I I¨i
You fail to parse BE or the input i = i.
Q5: What problem does one face in designing a language that allows ¡°goto¡± to jump into a label declared in an inner block as shown below.
Begin integer y; :
:
goto x;
:
Begin real z;
:
:
x: print(z); :
End; :
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10/20/21
Begin integer y; :
:
goto x;
:??
How do we know how many variables have been allocated in that block and what their values are?
It just doesn¡¯t make sense to jump into an inner block?
Begin real z; :
:
x: print(z); :
End; :
?
?
?
?
Q5a: OK, so what happens when you jump out to an outer block?
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
End;
:
End;
:
x: print(y);
End
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Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
What is the result of parsing the first ¡°goto x¡±?
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:E n d ; :
End;
:
x: print(y);
End
Tree
……
/ ¡°y¡±
………
/ ¡° x ¡±
P2 flags /
Where?
print
F l a g s : Declared:Prov
goto x
/
Type: prov.label
Reserved or user-defined
Block level: 0
Offset: 0 Anything else?
P1
Pointer to code!
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
What is the result of parsing the second ¡°goto x¡±?
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:E n d ; :
End;
:
x: print(y);
End
Tree
……
/ ¡°y¡±
………
/ ¡° x ¡±
P2 flags / P1 P2 flags /
F l a g s : Declared:Prov
goto x /
print
Type: prov.label Reserved or user-defined Block level: 2
Offset: 0
P1
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Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
What is the result of parsing ¡°x:¡±?
Tree
……
/ ¡°y¡±
………
/ ¡°x¡±
P1 P2 flags / P1 P2 flags /
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
print
:End;
:
End;
:
x: print(y);
End
goto x /
goto x
/
Did we miss something?
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
What happens after ¡±;¡± at point *?
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x; *
print
Tree
……
/ ¡°y¡±
………
/ ¡°x¡±
P1 P2 flags / P1 P2 flags /
:End;
:
End;
:
x: print(y);
End
goto x /
goto x
/
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10/20/21
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
What happens after ¡±;¡± at point *?
Tree
……
/ ¡°y¡±
goto ………
/ ¡°x¡±
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x; *
print
:End; goto
:
End; x/ :
x: print(y);
End
x /
P1 P2 flags /
Need to de-reference the label x
What is the result of parsing ¡°x:¡±?
Tree ……
goto x/
goto x /
/ ¡°y¡±
… … …
/ ¡°x¡± P1 P2 flags
print
Flags:
Declared: Yes
Type: label Reserved or user-defined Block level: 0
Offset: 0
You create P3 and update the flags
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Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z, t;
:
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
End;
:
End;
:
x: print(y);
End
y Blk2 zt B l k 1 y Blk0
Q6: What is de-referencing? Show what happens to the symbol table when the parser reaches the point ¡°*¡± in the program.
Begin integer r; :
:
:
Begin real x, y;
: end;*
: End;
/ ¡°x¡±
P1 P2 flags /
/ ¡°x¡±
P1 P2 flags /
/ ¡°y¡±
P1 P2 flags /
/ ¡°y¡± P1 P2 flags
/
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Q7: Explain what happens when the parser reaches the end of the program.
Begin integer y; :
goto x;
:
Begin real z;
:Begin
:goto x; :
End;
:
x: print(z); :
End;
:
End
It generates an error for undeclared label x.
Q7: And, how does the compiler detect such errors?
goto x;
:Begin real z; :
Begin
:goto x; :
End;
:
x: print(z); :
End;
:
End
To detect such errors, the compiler needs to maintain a list of forward referenced variables. At the end, anything left on the list would be undeclared and hence an error.
Begin integer y; :
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10/20/21
Parsing
Provide one derivation for the sentence aaabbbccc from the grammar G:
1. S¨aBC
2. S¨aSBC
3. aB¨ab
4. bB¨bb
5. CB¨BC
6. bC ¨bc
7. cC¨cc
S¨2 aSBC¨2 aaSBCBC¨1 aaaBCBCBC¨3 aaabCBCBC¨5 aaabBCCBC¨4 aaabbCCBC¨5 aaabbCBCC*¨5 aaabbBCCC ¨4 aaabbbCCC¨6 aaabbbcCC ¨7 aaabbbccC¨7 aaabbbccc
At step 7(marked *) you use rule 5 to shift the B to the front and not rule 6 to convert bC to bc.
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What are the three desiderata for the design of programming languages?
An ambiguous grammar
An effective implementation
An underlying machinery powerful enough to support its interpretation
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