# 程序代写代做代考 Erlang matlab CAE of Sensors and Actuators

CAE of Sensors and Actuators

Date: December 2020

Assignment due: February 3rd, 2021 at 23:55

Lehrstuhl fu ̈r Sensorik Universita ̈t Erlangen-Nu ̈rnberg Daniel Kiefer

Assignment 0: FEM Implementation – Part 2

In Assignment 0 – Part 1 you created a Finite Element code which solves the steady-state heat equation in 1D. The general boundary value problem (BVP) is given by

−ku′′ =f onx∈Ω=[a,b] (1a) u(x)=g(x) onx∈ΓD ⊂∂Ω (1b) (u′n)|x =h(x) onx∈ΓN ⊂∂Ω, (1c)

where ΓD and ΓN denote the Dirichlet and Neumann boundaries, respectively. u′n is the normal derivative in 1D, where n represents the “unit normal to the boundary”, i.e., n = 1 at x = b and n = −1 at x = a.

In this assignment you will extend your Finite Element code

• to support non-equidistant meshes,

• to handle general forcing functions f(x), and

• implement general Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions (BCs).

Note: For many of the tasks you can re-use/adapt solutions of Assignment 0 – Part 1. You should do this whenever you consider it convenient.

General hints and remarks

Please make sure to:

• Save all relevant plots you generate (e.g., as png-file) while working on the assignment.

• Always label the axes of the plots and add a legend if necessary.

• Format your plots so that they can be read easily (e.g., appropriate font size).

• Prepare a Results.pdf file with the plots and short answers to all questions (label each answer with its task number) for submission.

• If you are unsure on how to perform the tasks, refer to

– The Octave tutorial linked on StudOn – The first part of the assignment

– The exercise notes

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1 Preparation: Galerkin discretization

1.1. Write down the weak form of the BVP (1).

1.2. Perform a Galerkin discretization of the resulting weak form. Thereby, do not consider the BCs directly. Instead, use the ansatz

N

uh(x) = Nj(x)uj j=1

N

vh(x) = Ni(x)vi i=1

for the test function vh(x) and the trial function uh(x). You should end up with an expression similar to exercise sheet 2, problem 2.

2 Preparation: Isoparametric Finite Elements

In Part 1 we computed the stiffness matrix and forcing vector as a sum of integrals over the element domains. Thereby, you relied on the fact that we were using a regular mesh, where all the elements had the same size and shape. With an irregular mesh, however, each of the integrals has a different integration domain, which would require a different treatment of each of the elements. To avoid this difficulty, in practice the elements are mapped onto a so-called reference or parent element and the integration is then performed in a local coordinate system. Such a procedure is well suited for computer implementation because the mapping can be performed automatically. The system matrices are then obtained with the following steps:

• Define a map Fe : Ωˆ → Ωe, which maps the local coordinate ξ ∈ Ωˆ of the reference element to the global coordinate x ∈ Ωe.

• Express the global derivatives ∂ in terms of the local coordinate derivatives ∂ . ∂x ∂ξ

• Express all functions appearing in the integrals in terms of the local coordinate.

• Integrate on the reference element Ωˆ.

For our 1D case:

2.1. Write down the isoparametric ansatz for the mapping Fe.

2.2. Compute the corresponding linear basis functions Nˆa(ξ) for the reference element.

2.3. Determine the Jacobi matrix J , as well as J−T and detJ . eee

2.4.TransformN′(x)=∂Na(x) tolocalcoordinates,i.e.,∂Nˆa(ξ).DothesameforN′(x). a∂x ∂ξ b

2.5. The entries ke of the element stiffness matrix have been derived in Part 1 of the assignment ab

and are given in terms of the global coordinate x as

N′(x)N′(x)dx. (2) Transform ke (x) to the reference element Ωˆ. Make sure, that the expression you obtain

depends only on Nˆa(ξ), ∂ , Je and k. ∂ξ

2.6. Transform the forcing function f(x) to the local coordinate ξ. Denote the transformed function

ˆ

as f(ξ).

ab

ke (x)=k

ab ab

Ωe

2

2.7. The entries fae of the element force vector are determined in global coordinates by

fae(x) =

Transform fae(x) to the reference element Ωˆ. Make sure, that the expression you obtain

ˆˆ depends only on Na(ξ), Je and f(ξ).

3 Implementing the isoparametric FE with numerical integration

You will implement this version of your FE code based on your implementation of Assignment 0, Part 1. Move your previous code into a subfolder called part1. Then duplicate this folder and name it part2. You should now have two folders with the exact same code. For this part of the assignment, you will be doing all the work in the part2 folder.

3.1. Implement the function Je = jacobi(mesh, elem) in the file jacobi.m which computes the Jacobi matrix (of size 1 × 1 for the 1D case) of the element elem. Use the mesh structure that you generated in Part 1 of the assignment.

3.2. Rename your fem_equidistant_hdbc.m to fem_main.m.

3.3. Define the basis functions Nˆa(ξ) as anonymous functions in your fem_main.m. It might be convenient to collect them in a cell array, e.g.,

N = {@(xi) 1 – xi; @(xi) xi};

Make sure to familiarize yourself with anonymous functions and cell arrays before continuing.

3.4. Test your definition of the basis functions:

3.4.1. Create a vector xi by sampling the interval [0, 1] ten times.

3.4.2. Plot N1(ξ) and N2(ξ) into one figure using the anonymous functions defined in task 3.3. and the vector xi.

3.5. Similarly, define the derivatives ∂Nˆa(ξ) as (a cell array of) anonymous functions in your Matlab ∂ξ

code. As these functions need to support vector arguments, we need to make sure to return a vector of the same size as the argument. This can be achieved in the following way:

Nxi = {@(xi) -1*ones(size(xi)); @(xi) 1*ones(size(xi))};

3.6. Test your basis function derivatives defined above as done for the basis functions in task 3.4.

Note: You can later call, e.g., the basis function N1 by typing N{1}() and passing the argument in the parenthesis, if necessary.

3.7. Edit the elementStiffness() function from Part 1. It should now have the signature ke = elementStiffness(Nxi, Je),wheretheargumentsarethevectoroflocalderivativesNxi of the reference shape functions and the Jacobi matrix Je. This function should

3.7.1. Compute det Je . Hint: Matlab determinant is det().

3.7.2. Compute J−T . Hint: Matlab transpose is .’, Matlab inverse is inv().

3.7.3. Allocate memory for the element stiffness matrix ke.

3.7.4. Compute each of the entries ke of the matrix ke by performing a numerical integration on

the reference element. You can use the Matlab function integral() for the integration procedure. You might need to define first the integrand as an anonymous function and then pass that as an argument to the integral() function. Be aware that all your anonymous functions should support vector arguments, i.e., use point-wise multiplication in their definition. Refer to task 2.5. for the expression of ke .

3.8. Test your elementStiffness() function. Is it returning the same matrix as you computed by hand in Part 1 of the assignment?

e

ab

Ωe

3

f(x)Na(x)dx. (3)

ab

3.9. Define f(x) = 1 as an anonymous function of the argument x in your Matlab code. Make sure that it supports vector arguments and returns vectors of the same size (as in task 3.5.).

3.10. Createanewfunctionfhat = toLocalCoord(f, N, mesh, elem)inthefiletoLocalCoord.m. It should transform given function f from global coordinates x to local coordinates ξ. The returned variable fhat is an anonymous function of the argument xi. Refer to task 2.6. on how to do this.

3.11. Edit the elementForce() function. The new signature should be

fe = elementForce(N, Je, fhat), where the arguments are the vector of reference shape functions N, the Jacobi matrix Je, as well as the forcing function fhat in local coordinates. This function should

3.11.1. Compute det Je.

3.11.2. Allocate memory for the element force vector fe.

3.11.3. Compute each of the entries fae of the vector fe. Do this by performing a numerical integration on the reference element. Refer to task 2.7. for the expression of fae.

3.12. Test your elementForce() function. Is it returning the same vector as you computed by hand in Part 1 of the assignment?

4 Adapting the assembling procedure

Change the assembling procedure in your fem_main.m file in order to use the new functions. When iterating over the elements:

4.1. Compute the Jacobi matrix for the current element Je.

4.2. Transform functions to local coordinates (only necessary when assembling the force vector).

4.3. Calculate the element matrix/vector by calling your newly created function.

4.4. Add the element matrix/vector to the correct position in the global matrix/vector. This is exactly the same as in Part 1 of the assignment.

5 Testing

Test your implementation with an irregular mesh first. Your results should coincide with your results from part 1 of this assignment.

5.1. Test your implementation with an irregular mesh of your choice. You need to adapt your generateMesh() function for this purpose. If your domain is Ω = [a,b] ⊂ R, you could for example use the Chebyshev points

b−a k

xk =a+ 2 1−cos πn , withk∈[0…n], andnthenumberofelements. (4)

The above points are denser close to the domain boundaries than in the interior and are often used for numeric purposes. Plot your result and save it as a .png file.

5.2. Because you are performing a numerical integration to calculate the forcing vector, you should now be able to solve the BVP for any excitation f(x). Test your implementation with

2 πx

f(x)=sin (b−a) , (5)

where [a, b] ⊂ R is your 1D domain. Plot your result and save it as a .png file. You solution should be slightly different to your result with f(x) = 1.

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6 Implementing inhomogeneous Dirichlet BCs

In Part 1 of the assignment, you implemented homogeneous Dirichlet BCs. We will now extend the code for inhomogeneous Dirichlet BCs by applying elimination.

Note: You can refer to slides_dirichlet_node_handling.pdf on how this works. You can also refer to exercise sheet 2, problem 1 for help.

6.1. In fem_main.m, define a vector g which contains the two Dirichlet values u(a) and u(b). Set them to 1 and -0.5, respectively.

6.2. After assembling the global forcing vector F, define a right hand side vector RHS which shall contain not only the forcing, but also the contribution of the BCs. For now, initialize RHS simply with F.

6.3. Now, incorporate the Dirichlet contributions Ki1g1 and Ki1g1 by subtracting them from the RHS vector. This is shown in slides_dirichlet_node_handling.pdf.

6.4. After allocating memory for the solution vector u, set the boundary values to the known Dirichlet values g.

6.5. Solve the system as before and plot the solution. Are the Dirichlet conditions fulfilled? Save your plot as a .png file.

7 Implementing Neumann BCs

You can refer to exercise sheet 2, problem 2 for help on how to consider Neumann BCs. The corresponding contribution to the right hand side vector should appear in your computed weak form.

7.1. In fem_main.m, define a vector h which contains the Neumann values u′n|∂Ω. Set them to whatever values you want.

7.2. Adjust mesh.nodesOfDBC to correctly represent on which node you want to impose the Dirich- let BC. When applying only Neumann BCs, it should be an empty vector, i.e., [].

7.3. Define mesh.nodesOfNBC to be the Neumann boundary nodes. setdiff() might be a useful function for this, but you are not required to use it.

7.4. Incorporate the Neumann BCs to the vector RHS by adding the Neumann contributions which appear in your weak form of task 1.1.

7.5. Solve the system for the non-Dirichlet nodes as before.

If you implemented Neumann BCs on both boundary nodes, Matlab will warn you that your matrix is singular during the solution procedure. Why is that? Implement a homogeneous Dirichlet BC on one node and a homogeneous Neumann BC on the other node:

7.6. Adjust the vector of Dirichlet values and Neumann values appropriately.

7.7. Adjust mesh.nodesOfDBC and mesh.nodesOfNBC.

7.8. Solve the resulting system of equations and plot the solution. Are the desired boundary conditions fulfilled? Save your plot as a .png file.

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Submitting your assignment

Hand in your group’s • code and

• a Results.pdf file with the plots and short answers to all questions (label each answer with its task number),

before the due date by uploading to the corresponding StudOn section.

When handing in for the first time you need to create a group. Please add all members when doing so! Once the group has been create, you can and should re-use it for the subsequent submissions.

Important: Make sure that your code executes without need of changes. Executing fem_main.m should yield the computed solution and plot the results on any computer running the current version of Octave/MATLAB.

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