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ctional units

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Central Processing Unit
System’s Interconnection
Input Output
Communication lines
Main Memory

mplicit Parallelis
Higher lev
s of device
made available a large number of transistors.
How best to utilize these resources?
 Conventionally, use these resources in multi functional units and execute multiple
instructions in the same
Level Parall

ration have
cycle (Instruction

ps various stag
F: : Execute

e pipelining
ges, the faster
Also used in arithmetic
unit, e.g. fp multiply

e speed of
the slowest stage. –
pipeline is even
branch predict
deep pipelines
 However, in typical program traces, every 5-6th
The penalty of a misprediction grows with
of the pipeline
instructions will have to be
tually limited by
e stages, or very
– requires ve
, since a larger

FPUs, as well
multiple redundant functional units
ch CPU so that multiple
instructions can be executed on
separate data items concurrently.
 Early ones:
 modern one
ALUs and a single
s: have more, e.g. the
as two SIMD units.

The scheduler – a at a large number
uction queue
number of instructions to execute
piece of hardware looks of instructions in an
ong Instruction Word (VLIW)
sors – rely
to identify and bundle together instructions that can be executed
selects appr
e time analys

checking logic.
 The degrees of intrinsic parallelism the instruction stream, i.e. limited
truction-level pa
 The complexity and time cost of the

operation is a
the perform
pendency: The
n input to the next.
 Resource Dependency: Two operati the same resource.
The performa
ependency: Scheduling instructions
across conditional branch statements cannot be done deterministically a-priori.
will suffer if unable to
keep all of the units

Power and Heat: I
ntel Embraces Multicore
May 17, 2004 … Intel, the world’s largest chip maker, publicly acknowledged that it had hit a ”thermal wall” on its microprocessor line. As a result, the company is changing its product strategy and disbanding one of its most advanced design groups. Intel also said that it would
abandon two
advanced chip development projects …
Now, Intel is embarked on a course already adopted by some of its major rivals: obtaining more computing power by stamping multiple processors on a single chip rather than straining to increase the speed of a single processor … Intel’s decision to change course and embrace a ”dual
core’‘ processor structure shows the challenge of overcoming the effec of heat generated by the constant on-off movement of tiny switches in
modern computers … some analysts and former Intel designers said that
Intel was coming to terms with escalating heat problems so severe they threatened to cause its chips to fracture at extreme temperatures…
Times, May 17,

On-chip cache
Shared global DRAM)
Multicore chip
on-chip cache
hared cache
of processors,
on-chip cache
(external cache and

All PCs have a GPU – the main chip inside a computer which calculates and generates the positioning of graphics on a computer screen.
 Games typically renders 10 000s triangles @ 60 fps
 Screen resolution is typically recalculated every frame
 This correspond
s to processing 115 200 000 pps
to make these operations
New types of GPUs contain multiple cores (or many- cores) that utilise hardware multithreading and SIMD.
00 and each pixel

SM – Streaming
Register file
Multiprocessor (more-less a core)
SP – Streaming Processor
processor core”)
Shared memory
Constant cache (read only for SM)
Texture cache (read for SM)

Multicores are complex c
complex, lots latency hiding
simpler core, little internal
concurrency, latency-sensitive (e.g. NVIDIA GPUs), used as accelerators
ores: huge,
of internal concurrency (e.g. intel processors)
general-purpose processing

Prof Michae the method
Rarely used
l Flynn (Stanford University) proposed to classify computers in 60’s
modern computers are combin
Procesor arrays
Pipelined vector processors
Multiprocessors Multicomputers
Instruction stream
Multiple Single

Single Instruction Data architecture
 A single instruction
operate on
elements in parallel
the highly
structured nature of the underlying computations
 Data parallelism
 widely applied in vector
processing, and multimedia processing (e.g., graphics, image and video)

Scalar processing
 traditional mode
 one operation produces
one result
cessing Unit
SIMD processing: ve
 e.g., SSEx on intel
 Data parallelism
 Multiple operations in parallel

GPU is a type of SIMD
machine, originally designed for graphics processing
It has Potential for
high performance at low cost
and nowadays widely
used for certain kinds of parallel applications (data parallel) – GPGPU
i, 512 Processing Elements (SPs)

.e. distributed
(based on the memory organization) into shared-memory or distributed-memory architectures (or a combination of both,
 shared-memory multiprocessors communicate together through a common memory.
distributed-memory multicomputers
together through communication

allel Architectures
All the processors in the
s in the system (can have
non-uniform memory access
system can
cess all memory
access (UMA)
Interconnection Network

allel Architectures
ocessors have direct acce
place via message
DISTRIBUTED-MEMORY MULTICO shared-memory processor)
ach PE can be a
Interconnect Network

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