CS代考 King’s College London – cscodehelp代写

King’s College London
This paper is part of an examination of the College counting towards the award of a degree. Examinations are governed by the College Regulations under the authority of the Academic Board.
Degree Programmes
Module Code Module Title Examination Period
BSc, MSci,BEng,MEng
6CCS3AIP
Arti􏰀cial Intelligence Planning January 2019 (Period 1)
Time Allowed Rubric
Calculators
Notes
Two hours
ANSWER THREE OF FOUR QUESTIONS.
All questions carry equal marks. If more than three ques- tions are answered, the three answers with highest marks will count.
Calculators may be used. The following models are permit- ted: Casio fx83 / Casio fx85.
Books, notes or other written material may not be brought into this examination
PLEASE DO EXAMINATION ROOM
 2019 King’s College London
NOT REMOVE THIS PAPER FROM THE

January 2019 6CCS3AIP
Cleanup Domain and Problem for Question 1
(define (domain CleanupDomain)
(:requirements :typing :fluents :durative-actions :duration-inequalities)
(:types robot door location – object)
(:predicates
)
)
(exposure_available ?r – robot)
(can_act ?r – robot)
(door_at ?d – door ?l – location)
(can_open ?d – door)
(door_open ?d – door)
(have_photo_inside ?l – location)
(at ?r – robot ?l – location)
(free ?r – robot)
(:durative-action exposure_window
:parameters (?r – robot)
:duration (and (<= ?duration 22) (>= ?duration 0.01))
:condition (and
(at start (exposure_available ?r)))
:effect (and
(at start (not (exposure_available ?r)))
(at start (can_act ?r))
(at end (not (can_act ?r)))
)
(:durative-action move_robot
:parameters (?r – robot ?from ?to – location)
:duration (= ?duration 10)
:condition (and
(at start (at ?r ?from))
(over all (can_act ?r))
(over all (free ?r))
)
:effect (and
(at start (not (at ?r ?from)))
(at end (at ?r ?to))
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January 2019
)
)
(:durative-action take_photo
:parameters (?r – robot ?d – door ?react – location)
:duration (= ?duration 1)
:condition (and
(over all (can_act ?r))
(over all (door_open ?d))
(over all (door_at ?d ?react))
(over all (at ?r ?react))
(at start (free ?r))
)
:effect (and
(at start (not (free ?r)))
(at end (free ?r))
(at end (have_photo_inside ?react))
)
6CCS3AIP
) )
)
(:durative-action open_door
:parameters (?d – door ?l – location ?r – robot)
:duration (= ?duration 2)
:condition (and
(at start (can_open ?d))
(over all (door_at ?d ?l))
(over all (can_act ?r))
(at end (at ?r ?l))
)
:effect (and
(at start (not (can_open ?d)))
(at start (door_open ?d))
(at end (not (door_open ?d)))
)
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January 2019
(define (problem CleaupProblem)
(:domain CleanupDomain)
(:objects
reactor1door – door
entrance reactor1 – location
robby – robot
) (:init
(exposure_available robby)
(can_open reactor1door)
(at robby entrance)
(free robby)
(door_at reactor1door reactor1)
)
(:goal (and
(have_photo_inside reactor1)
(at robby entrance)
)) )
6CCS3AIP
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
1. This question refers to the cleanup domain and problem on the previous pages, which models the activities of a robot assisting in nuclear cleanup. Speci􏰀cally the robot’s task is to take a photo of the inside of the reactor, which is itself inside a larger reactor containment building. The exposure_window action represents the maximum amount of time that the robot can be in the room without damage to its hardware (taking into account additional exposure at a higher level for 3 time units when the reactor door is open). The reactor door is opened via remote control by operators outside the reactor building, it can be opened at any time (without the robot being at the door) and will automatically close after 3 time units. The robot must be at the door when it closes (i.e. at the end of the open_door action) as operators use a camera mounted on the robot to verify that the door has closed properly.
a. This part of the question concerns the exposure_available predicate, which is a precondition and start delete e􏰁ect of the exposure_window action.
i. What unintended behaviour could happen if this was not a precondition of
exposure_window (or was not deleted at all by the exposure_window action)? [3 marks]
ii. What could happen if exposure_available is a precondition of exposure win- dow, but is deleted at the end of exposure_window rather than the start? How would this impact planner performance (time to 􏰀nd a solution)?
[2 marks]
QUESTION 1 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
b. Could a decision epoch planner 􏰀nd a solution to this problem? Explain your answer. [4 marks]
c.
i. Draw the STN that CRIKEY3 would generate for the following partial plan (you
may abbreviate action names if you wish, so long as it is clear which is which). [8 marks]
(exposure_window robby) start
(move_robot robby entrance reactor1) start
(move_robot robby entrance reactor1) end
(open_door reactor1door reactor1 robby) start
(take_photo robby reactor1door reactor1) start
(take_photo robby reactor1door reactor1) end
(open_door reactor1door reactor1 robby) end
(move_robot robby reactor1 entrance) start
(move_robot robby reactor1 entrance) end
ii. Is this a temporally valid plan? Explain how you worked this out from your STN. [2 marks]
i. How does the STN that POPF would build for this plan di􏰁er from the one you drew above for Crikey?
d.
ii. Can POPF 􏰀nd a solution from this plan? Explain your answer.
[4 marks]
[2 marks]
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
2. This is a question about SMTPlan, and encoding PDDL+ as SAT Modulo theories. Here is a fragment of a AUVdocking domain:
Actions and Processes:
(:process hover
:parameters (?u – auv)
:precondition (>= (energy ?u) 0)
:effect (and
(increase (pos ?u) (* #t (vel ?u))))
(decrease (energy ?u) (* #t 5.6))
)
)
(:action dock
:parameters (?u – auv)
:precondition (= (pos ?u) 1000.0)
:effect (and (docked ?u))
)
(:durative-action brake
:parameters (?u – auv)
:duration (>= ?duration 0)
:condition (over all (>= (energy ?u) 0))
:effect (and (decrease (vel ?u) (* #t 2.4)))
)
QUESTION 2 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
The auv must reach the docking station (which is in position 1000) at velocity 0, so that it can then dock and recharge. As it is moving towards the docking station, the auv is able to brake in order to decrease its speed.
a. SMTPlan solves PDDL+ problems by encoding them as SMT formulae, and solving the formulae using an SMT solver. SMTPlan uses iterative deepening on the number of happenings.
i. What is meant by a happening in this context?
[1 marks]
ii. Explain how iterative deepening works in the context of SMTPlan. What e􏰁ect
does this approach have on 􏰀nding optimal solutions to PDDL+ problems?
[3 marks]
iii. The zero-crossing problem occurs when dealing with a domain containing con- tinuous non-linear change. Explain what is the zero-crossing problem, using this domain as an example.
[3 marks]
iv. Explain how the gradient of the continuous change can be used to alleviate the zero-crossing problem. In SMTPlan, what impact does this have on the kinds of dynamics that can be soundly solved?
[3 marks]
QUESTION 2 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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Here is a fragment of an SMT encoding of the lander problem:
(declare-fun (dock auv01)0 () Bool)
(declare-fun (docked auv01)0_0 () Bool)
(declare-fun (docked auv01)0_1 () Bool)
(declare-fun (dock auv01)1 () Bool)
(declare-fun (docked auv01)1_1 () Bool)
(declare-fun (docked auv01)1_0 () Bool)
(not (docked auv01)0_0))
(=> (docked auv01)0_1
(or (docked auv01)0_0 (dock auv01)0)))
(=> (not (docked auv01)0_1)
(not (docked auv01)0_0)))
(=> (docked auv01)1_1
(or (docked auv01)1_0 (dock auv01)1)))
(=> (not (docked auv01)1_1)
(not (docked auv01)1_0)))
(=> (dock auv01)0 (docked auv01)0_1))
(=> (dock auv01)1 (docked auv1)1_1))
(docked auv01)1_1)
6CCS3AIP
There are two Boolean variables representing the application of the (dock auv01) action. There are four Boolean variables describing the (docked auv01) fact, just before and after
QUESTION 2 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
two distinct happenings. The constraints above show that auv01 is not docked in the 􏰀rst happening, and that it should be in the second. There are also several implications.
b. Assuming that there are no other constraints containing the (docked auv01) variables, explain how the constraints above are not su􏰂cient. Prove this by 􏰀nding a valid assignment that does not correspond to the PDDL+ semantics.
c. Extend the constraints with one or more new constraints to 􏰀x this issue.
[4 marks]
[4 marks]
d. The following real variables are used to model the absolute time of the two hap- penings, the position of the auv, and the durative actions and processes during the interval between the happenings.
(declare-fun t0 () Real)
(declare-fun t1 () Real)
(declare-fun (pos auv01)0_0 () Real)
(declare-fun (pos auv01)0_1 () Real)
(declare-fun (pos auv01)1_1 () Real)
(declare-fun (pos auv01)1_0 () Real)
(declare-fun (hover auv01)0_run () Bool)
(declare-fun (brake auv01)0_run () Bool)
Using these variables, extend the constraints above in order to: i. Ensure that the initial happening occurs at time zero.
QUESTION 2 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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[1 marks]

January 2019 6CCS3AIP
ii. Ensure that the position of the auv descent does not change instantaneously within a happening.
[2 marks]
iii. Ensure a valid continuous change in (pos auv01) between the happenings.
[4 marks]
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
Continuous Version of Cleanup Domain and Problem for Question 3
(define (domain CleanupDomainContinuous)
(:requirements :typing :fluents :durative-actions :duration-inequalities)
(:types robot door location – object)
(:predicates
(can_act ?r – robot)
(door_at ?d – door ?l – location)
(can_open ?d – door)
(door_open ?d – door)
(have_photo_inside ?l – location)
(at ?r – robot ?l – location)
(free ?r – robot)
)
(:functions (exposure ?r – robot) )
(:durative-action move_robot
:parameters (?r – robot ?from ?to – location)
:duration (= ?duration 10)
:condition (and
(at start (at ?r ?from))
(over all (can_act ?r))
(over all (free ?r))
(over all (<= (exposure ?r) 27))) :effect (and (at start (not (at ?r ?from))) (at end (at ?r ?to)) (increase (exposure ?r) (*#t 1)))) Page 12 SEE NEXT PAGE January 2019 6CCS3AIP (:durative-action take_photo :parameters (?r - robot ?d - door ?react - location) :duration (= ?duration 1) :condition (and (over all (can_act ?r)) (over all (door_open ?d)) (over all (door_at ?d ?react)) (over all (at ?r ?react)) (at start (free ?r))) :effect (and (at start (not (free ?r))) (at end (free ?r)) (at end (have_photo_inside ?react)))) (:durative-action open_door :parameters (?d - door ?l - location ?r - robot) :duration (= ?duration 2) :condition (and (at start (can_open ?d)) (over all (door_at ?d ?l)) (over all (can_act ?r)) (at end (at ?r ?l))) :effect (and (at start (not (can_open ?d))) (at start (door_open ?d)) (at end (not (door_open ?d))) (increase (exposure ?r) (*#t 3))))) Page 13 SEE NEXT PAGE January 2019 (define (problem CleaupProblem) (:domain CleanupDomainContinuous) (:objects reactor1door - door entrance reactor1 - location robby - robot ) (:init (= (exposure robby) 0) (can_open reactor1door) (at robby entrance) (free robby) (door_at reactor1door reactor1) (can_act robby) (free robby) ) (:goal (and (have_photo_inside reactor1) (at robby entrance) )) ) 6CCS3AIP Page 14 SEE NEXT PAGE January 2019 6CCS3AIP 3. This question refers to an alternative model of the robot cleanup domain (see previous pages) that has been proposed, which makes use of continuous e􏰁ects. These model the total exposure of the robot, and an overall constraint on the move action ensures that the robot can only return to the entrance, and thus complete the plan, if the total exposure is below a speci􏰀ed threshold. a. i. The fact (door_at reactor1door reactor1) is a static fact. What is a static fact? [2 marks] ii. How can we exploit the fact that some facts are static to reduce the memory overheads of storing states during search? b. i. [3 marks] Write down the LP that COLIN would generate to check the temporal and numeric constraints for the following partial plan: [10 marks] (move_robot robby entrance reactor1) start (open_door reactor1door reactor1 robby) start (move_robot robby entrance reactor1) end (open_door reactor1door reactor1 robby) end Can COLIN 􏰀nd a feasible solution to this LP or would the state resulting from this partial plan be pruned from search? [3 marks] ii. QUESTION 3 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE Page 15 SEE NEXT PAGE January 2019 6CCS3AIP c. Suppose there is another reactor, reactor2, within the same containment building. The operators would also like the robot to photograph inside reactor2, and if it does it should do the photograph of reactor1 􏰀rst. They wish to express this as a preference in order to allow the planner to satisfy this if it is able to, but to still get a plan if this is not possible. i. How would you represent this preference in PDDL? ii. Draw the automaton for the preference (at-most-once (door_open reactor1door)). [3 marks] [4 marks] Page 16 SEE NEXT PAGE January 2019 6CCS3AIP 4. This question is about PDDL+. For reference, here is a fragment of a variant of the generator domain: Actions: (:durative-action generate :parameters (?g - generator) :duration (>= ?duration 0)
:condition ( and (over all (>= (fuelLevel ?g) 0))
(over all (safe ?g)))
:effect (and (decrease (fuelLevel ?g) (* #t 1))
(at start (increase (power-supplied) 10))
(at end (decrease (power-supplied) 10))
)
(:action refuel
:parameters (?g – generator ?t – tank)
:precondition (and (not (using ?t ?g)) (available ?t))
:effect (and (using ?t ?g) (not (available ?t)))
)
(:process refuelling
:parameters (?g – generator ?t -tank)
:precondition (and (using ?t ?g))
:effect (and (increase (fuelLevel ?g) (* #t 2))
)
(decrease (fuelInTank ?t) (* #t 1)))
QUESTION 4 CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
The generator(s) must be used to provide enough power to satisfy the demand de􏰀ned in the problem 􏰀le. Each generator is initially 􏰀lled to its 100-unit fuel capacity, and consumes fuel at a rate of 1 unit per second. When active, each generator provides 10 units of power. The generator can be re􏰀lled using tanks, the action to do this is named refuel and increases the fuel level in the generator at a rate of 2 units per second.
a. In the fragment above, once the process refuelling is triggered, it would run for ever. What is needed to avoid this odd behaviour and to have a correct domain for this problem?
b. Extend the domain with the corresponding PDDL+ construct.
[3 marks]
[4 marks]
c. In the fragment above, each generator can be used arbitrarily often. Instead, we want to change the model so that once a generator has been switched o􏰁 it cannot be switched on again. Modify the domain to satisfy this new constraint.
[3 marks]
d. The pair of action refuel and process refuelling can be both replaced by a single durative action refuel. Modify the domain by adding this new durative action and discuss possible di􏰁erences between the two design choices.
[9 marks]
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January 2019 6CCS3AIP
e. In the current model, the requirement of producing enough power to satisfy the demand is not modelled. Assuming the function demand is used to represent the current demand, describe how the domain needs to be modi􏰀ed so that a valid plan will have to satisfy the demand requirements.
[6 marks]
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