# CS代考 Mixed strategy – cscodehelp代写

Mixed strategy
Chances are you would play a mixed strategy. You would:
‚ sometimesplayrock,
‚ sometimesplaypaper;and ‚ sometimesplayscissors.
A fixed/pure strategy is easy for an adaptive player to beat.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 2

Mixed strategy
A mixed strategy is just a probability distribution across a set of pure strategies.
So, for a game where agent i has two actions a1 and a2, a mixed strategy for i is a probability distirbution:
MSi “ tPpa1q,Ppa2qu
Given this mixed strategy, when i comes to play, they pick action a1 with
probability Ppa1q and a2 with probability Ppa2q.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 3

Mixed strategy
To determine the mixed strategy, i can compute the best values of Ppa1q and Ppa2q.
These will be the values which give i the highest expected payoff given the options that j can choose and the joint payoffs that result.
We could write down the expected payoffs of different mixed strategies and pick the one that optimises expected payoff.
There is also a simple graphical method which works for very simple cases. Will look at this method next.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 4

Mixed strategy
Let’s consider the payoff matrix:
j
a3
a4
-3 3
1 -1
0 0
-1 1
a1 i
a2
We want to compute mixed strategies to be used by the players.
That means decide Ppa1q and Ppa2q etc.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 5

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Mixed strategy
i’s analysis of this game would be something like this.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 6

Mixed strategy
33
22 1 j picks a3 1
00
−1 −2 −3
−1 −2 −3
0 P(a1) 1
Consider it from i’s perspective. Let’s say you know that j plays a3. i’s payoff will be 3 or 0 depending on whether i picks a1 or a2.
The expected payoff therefore varies along the line, as Ppa1q varies from 0 to 1.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 7

Mixed strategy
33 22 11 00
−1
−2 −3
j picks a4 −1
−2 −3
0 P(a1) 1
Consider it from i’s perspective. Let’s say you know that j plays a4. i’s payoff will be ́1 or 1 depending on whether i picks a1 or a2.
The expected payoff therefore varies along the line, as Ppa1q varies from 0 to 1.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 8

Mixed strategy
33
22 1 j picks a3 1
00
−1 −2 −3
0.2
j picks a4 −1
−2 −3
0 P(a1) 1
Where the lines intersect, i has the same expected payoff whatever j does. This is a rational choice of mixed strategy.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 9

Mixed strategy
j can do the same kind of analysis:
33 22 11
0 −1 −2 −3
i picks a2
i picks a1
0 −1
−2 −3
0.4
0 P(a3) 1
c -Trenn, King’s College London
10

Mixed strategy
This analysis will help i and j choose a mixed strategy in zero-sum games.
(Archives of the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton)
This approach is due to von Neumann.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 11

General sum games
Battle of the Outmoded Gender Stereotypes ‚ akaBattleoftheSexes
this that this
that
1 2
0 0
0 0
2 1
Game contains elements of cooperation and competition.
The interplay between these is what makes general sum games interesting.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 12
(Time-Life/Getty)

Negotiation
Interplay between cooperation and competition leads to negotiation See, for example, the work of .
(law-train.eu)
c -Trenn, King’s College London 13

Nash equilibrium
Earlier we introduced the notion of Nash equilibrium as a solution concept for general sum games.
(We didn’t describe it in exactly those terms.)
Looked at pure strategy Nash equilibrium.
Issue was that not every game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 14

Nash equilibrium
For example:
j
DC D
i
C
2 1
1 2
0 2
1 1
Has no pure strategy NE.
c -Trenn, King’s College London
15

Nash equilibrium
The notion of Nash equilibrium extends to mixed strategies.
And every game has at least one mixed strategy Nash equilibrium.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 16

Nash equilibrium
For a game with payoff matrices A (to i) and B (to j), a mixed strategy px ̊, y ̊q is a Nash equilibrium solution if:
@x, x ̊Ay ̊T • xAy ̊T @y, x ̊By ̊T • x ̊ByT
In other words, x ̊ gives a higher expected value to i than any other strategy when j plays y ̊.
Similarly, y ̊ gives a higher expected value to j than any other strategy when i plays x ̊.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 17

Nash equilibrium
Unfortunately, this doesn’t solve the problem of which Nash equilibrium you should play.
c -Trenn, King’s College London 18

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