CS计算机代考程序代写 assembly Java c/c++ jvm computer architecture mips assembler interpreter compiler algorithm Instructions and Programs

Instructions and Programs
CS 154: Computer Architecture Lecture #7
Winter 2020
Ziad Matni, Ph.D.
Dept. of Computer Science, UCSB

•I got nada
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Lecture Outline
• Branch and Jump Addressing
• Parallelism and Synchronization
• Going from File to Machine Code
• Relative Performance Comparisons
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Branch Addressing
I-Type of instruction (beq , bne)
• Branch instructions specify:
Opcode + 2 registers + target address
• Most branch targets are near the branch instruction in the text segment of memory
• Either ahead or behind it
• Addressing can be done relative to the value in PC Reg. (“PC-Relative Addressing”)
• Target address = PC + offset (in words) x 4
• PC is already incremented by 4 by this time
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Branching Far Away
If branch target is too far to encode with 16-bit offset, then assembler will rewrite the code
• Example
beq $s0, $s1, L1
bne $s0, $s1, L2
j L1 L2: …
# L1 is far away # rewritten…
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Jump Addressing
J-Type of instruction (j , jal)
• Jump (j and jal) targets could be anywhere in text segment • Encode full address in instruction
• Direct jump addressing
• Target address = (address x 4 ) OR (PC[31: 28])
• i.e. Take the 4 most sig. bits in PC
and concatenate the 26 bits in “address” field
and then concatenate another 00 (i.e x 4)
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Target Addressing Example
• Assume Loop is at location 80000
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addi $t0, $t0, 42
add $t0, $t1, $t3
lw $t0, 4($t1)
beq $t0, $t1, L1
j L1
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Addressing Mode Summary

Parallelism and Synchronization
• Consider: 2 processors sharing an area of memory • P1 writes, then P2 reads
• There may be a “data race” if P1 and P2 don’t synchronize • Result depends of order of accesses
• Hardware support required
• “Atomic” read/write memory operation,
i.e. no other mem. access allowed between the read and write
• Could be a single instruction
• E.g., atomic swap of register ↔ memory
• Or an atomic pair of instructions (like ll & sc)
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Synchronization in MIPS
• Load link: ll rt, offset(rs)
• Store conditional: sc rt, offset(rs)
• Succeeds if location not changed since the ll: Returns 1 in rt • Fails if location is changed: Returns 0 in rt
• ll returns the current value of a memory location
• A subsequent sc to the same memory location will store a new value there only if no updates have occurred to that location since the ll.
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Going From File to Machine Code
• There are 4 steps in transforming a program in a file into a program running on a computer
1. Compiler
• Takes a program in a HLL and translates to assembly language • Some compilers have assemblers & linkers built-in
2. Assembler
• Takes care of pseudoinstructions, number conversions (to hex)
• Produces an object file (a combination of machine language instructions, data, and information needed to place instructions properly in memory)
• This has to determine the addresses corresponding to all labels
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Producing an Object Module
• Header: described contents of object module
• Text segment: translated instructions
• Static data segment: data allocated for the life of the program
• Relocation info: for contents that depend on absolute location of loaded program
• Symbol table: global definitions and external refs • Debug info: for associating with source code
This may not have all the references/labels resolved yet
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Going From File to Machine Code (cont…)
3. Linker
• When a program comprises multiple object files, the linker combines these files into a unified executable program, resolving the symbols (references) as it goes along.
• There are 3 steps for the linker:
1. Place code and data modules symbolically in memory.
2. Determine the addresses of data and instruction labels.
3. Patch both the internal and external references.
• This produces one executable file with machine language instructions. 4. Loader
• OS program that takes the executable code, sets up CPU memory for it, copies over the instructions to CPU memory, initializes all registers, jumps to the start-up routine (i.e. usually main:)
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4 steps in transforming a program in a file into a program running on a computer
Translation and Startup
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Dynamic Linking
• Only finish linking a library procedure when it is called. Pros:
• Often-used libraries need to be stored in only one location, not duplicated in every single executable file.
• Saves memory and disk space
• Updates/fixes to one library can be done modularly. Cuts down on
compiling time. Cons:
• “DLL hell”: newer version of library is not backward compatible.
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• Java was invented to be different than C/C++
• Intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere”
• Rather than compile to the assembly language of a target computer, Java is compiled first to the Java bytecode instruction set
• These run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture
• JVM is a software interpreter that simulates an ISA
• Advantage: portability
• JVMs are found in hundreds of millions of devices (cell phones, Internet browsers, etc…)
• Performance can be enhanced with “Just-in-Time” compilation (JIT)
• Java is very popular, but still generally slower than C/C++
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Program Performance:
Effect of Compiler Optimization on sort Program
* *
Ultimately, O3 runs the fastest.
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Instruction count and CPI are not good performance indicators in isolation

1. Compiler optimizations are sensitive to the algorithm
2. Java/JIT compiled code is significantly faster than JVM interpreted
3. Nothing can fix a dumb algorithm!
Program Performance:
Effect of Language and Algorithm
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YOUR TO-DOs for the Week
• Readings! •Work on Lab 4!
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