CS计算机代考程序代写 mips Hive prolog assembly Project 1: Breakout! Due by midnight, Saturday 3/13

Project 1: Breakout! Due by midnight, Saturday 3/13
For project 1, you’ll be writing a video game in MIPS assembly: Breakout ! If you’re not familiar with the game, find an online version of it and play around. It’s pretty simple – it was originally made without a CPU after all!
You’ll continue to use the LED Keypad and Display plugin that you used in lab 4. To the right is a video demonstrating how the game will look when you’re done (but you can make the blocks any pattern you like).
Brief game description
In Breakout, you control the paddle at the bottom of the screen. You can move the paddle left and right.
The blocks are the colored rectangles at the top of the screen. Your goal is to break all the blocks. When all the blocks are broken, the game ends.
The way you do that is by bouncing a ball with your paddle. The ball breaks a block if it touches them, and then bounces off the block. The ball also bounces off the walls and ceiling.
If the ball goes off the bottom of the screen, that is a miss, andthe paddle and ball are reset (but the blocks remain).
When the game first starts, or whenever you miss the ball, the paddle should appear at a random horizontal position with the ball sitting on top of it. The ball will not move until the player hits any key. Then it will move up-right.
Grading Rubric
CS 0447 Term 2214 (Spring …

[10 points]: Submission and style
Please follow the submission instructions.
Code style is important.
Instructions should be indented to the same level with the labels on the left.
Indentation uses the tab key, not the spacebar. Never use the
spacebar to indent.
You should be following the calling conventions and register usage conventions.
You should also use multiple functions, where they make sense.
[90 points]: The game [20] Paddle
[6] Paddle appears at random X location
[4] Paddle is properly drawn
[6] Paddle moves left and right with arrow keys [4] Paddle stops at edges of screen
[46] Ball
[4] Ball appears on top of paddle
[4] Ball is properly drawn
[4] Ball starts moving when player hits any key
[4] Ball moves!
[4] Ball bounces off walls
[4] Ball bounces off ceiling
[8] Ball bounces off paddle
[8] Ball bounces off all sides of blocks
[6] Ball going off the bottom of the screen resets paddle/ball and waits
[24] Blocks
[8] Blocks are properly drawn
[4] Count of remaining blocks to break is displayed onscreen [8] Blocks disappear when hit by ball
[4] When all blocks are broken, program exits
Stuff to download
Right-click and download this ZIP file. Your browser may automatically extract it to a folder. If not, open it and extract its contents to a new folder.

1. Rename to your username.
2. Open that file in MARS.
3. Open and connect the Keypad and LED Display Simulator tool. 4. Assemble and run. It should just sit there in an infinite loop.
What you’ve been given
contains all the constants and variables you’ll need, as well as a skeleton function.
Read the comments.
See the in a few places? That’s for you to do.
has the color and key constants for interacting with the
macros.asm contains some very useful macros, which are like custom
Each macro has a comment documenting what it does. You’re allowed to use any of them!
I don’t recommend you make your own macros, many people have gotten confused that way.
display_2211_0822.asm is a library of functions to interact with the display and keypad.
This way you don’t have to deal with the MMIO directly, unlike in the lab.
enter and leave count_blocks_left looks like this:
# TODO: actually implement this!
li v0, 1
What are enter and leave ? They’re macros I provided in macros.asm :
= popra and jrra
push ra

So they act as the “braces” around functions.
If you want to use any s registers, you list them in the same order after enter and leave :
enter s0, s1
# in this function, I can use s0 and s1 as “local varia
# IMPORTANT: always list the same registers in the SAME ORD
leave s0, s1
Only change abc123_proj1.asm . Don’t change the other 3 files.
# jal setup_paddle # jal
paddle_x = rand(PADDLE_MAX_X – PADDLE_MIN_X) + PADDLE
These macros greatly reduce the amount of code you have to write for function prologues/epilogues. (I didn’t give them to you until now because you had to learn how to do it correctly. Sorry, that’s how it goes!)
Getting started, finally
There are three main parts of this game, in order of increasing complexity: the paddle, the blocks, and the ball.
The paddle
, uncomment and
, then stub those two functions out.
, you need to do the equivalent of:
Syscall 42 gives a random value, but its arguments are weird: always pass 0 in
pass the upper range (
) in
Step through this function after implementing it and make sure is set to a random value.
should do the equivalent of:

// this is the game loop
do {
display_update_and_clear(); // from display_2211_
wait_for_next_frame(); // also from display_
} while(count_blocks_left() != 0)
Tangent: using the drawing functions
There are a couple functions from display_2211_0822.asm you’ll use to draw things to the screen:
sets the pixel at to .
this will crash if you give it invalid coordinates, as a debugging feature.
If your program crashes on a tlti or tgei instruction, you passed invalid coordinates!
display_set_pixel(x: a0, y: a1, color: a2)
(x, y)
display_fill_rect(x: a0, y: a1, width: a2, height: a3,
color: v1)
I was BAD and I made it take an argument in a v register! GASP! sue me
starting at the top-left corner , fills a rectangle width pixels wide and height pixels tall with
again this crashes if you give invalid x/y coordinates.
Drawing the paddle
draw_paddle needs to do:
(x, y)
// remember the color is passed in v1, cause I’m a rebel
display_fill_rect(paddle_x, PADDLE_Y, PADDLE_WIDTH, PADDLE_
Once implemented, the paddle should appear onscreen at the random location chosen by setup_paddle !
Moving the paddle
Remember the lab with the dots? And how you used the arrow keys to move them? You’ll be doing something very similar here…

In your function’s loop, add a call to and stub that out.
, call
It returns the currently-held keys as a bitfield in v0 , just like on the
The logic works something like this:
If the player is holding , decrement paddle_x . If the player is holding , increment .
should never go less than or greater than .
You can use conditionals for this (no easy and this time) Or you could check out the min/max macros…
Once implemented, the paddle should move when you hit the left/right arrow keys! Make sure it stops at the sides of the screen.
The blocks
The blocks are held in the blocks array. It is an array of bytes.
0 means an empty space.
Anything other than 0 is the color of that block. (See the colors in
There are at most There are
blocks on-screen. columns of blocks and
pixels wide and BLOCK_HEIGHT pixels
Each block is
The bottom of the last row of blocks is BOARD_BLOCK_BOTTOM pixels down from the top.
Drawing the blocks:
Your And
loop also needs to call a draw_blocks function… needs to draw all the blocks in the array.
It’s a 2D array, meaning a nested loop.
And you’ll be calling inside the loops, meaning you’ll need registers for your loop counters…
You can figure it out. 🙂
The default blocks configuration is just 8 colored blocks in the middle of the screen…

play_game show_blocks_left
display_draw_int(3, 57, count_blocks_left())
count_blocks_left li v0, 1
v0 = 0;
display_draw_int(x: a0, y: a1, value:
for(i = 0; i < BOARD_MAX_BLOCKS; i++) { if(blocks[i] != 0) { v0++ } } Tips: You don’t actually need an s register for i , because you never call a function in the loop. Remember to use the name of the constant, not its value, when writing the condition. If you haven’t encountered this load/store syntax yet: it means, “load a byte from blocks + t1 into t0 ”. lb t0, blocks(t1) So, it does the And since needed to calculate Do you think I wrote it this way on purpose? To make it easier for you? We may never know... and add steps for you. is an array of bytes, there is no mul blocks la . Si You can change that array to whatever you want. Showing how many blocks are left: There is a function that does what it says. In your function which does: But implement Counting the blocks: loop, you should call a is just returning 1 right now, so let’s . In with code that does the following: , delete the line and replace it The Ball Okay, you’re mostly on your own for this. By now you should have a good idea where to put code to implement the various behaviors of the ball. The ball is drawn as a single pixel using . The ball’s velocity ( ) is how far it moves each time through the loop. It will always be diagonal, so (1, 1), (1, -1), (-1, 1), or (-1, -1). After setting up the paddle, set up the ball: It should appear on top of the paddle. Figure out the coordinates for that. Set its velocity to move up and to the right. It should not start moving until the player presses a key. So when the game starts, it should show everything but the ball should be frozen in place. Then, the player hits a key (arrow key or zxcb) and it begins to move. Moving the ball means adding the velocity to its position. It’s as simple as ball_x += ball_vx and same for y. But of course, the ball wants to go offscreen and crash your program... what a PAIN Collision The ball_old_x/y variables are used for collision. You use them like so: 1. set 2. do 1. 2. 1. 2. The tricky and ball_old_y = ball_y to move it on the X, and then... ball_x += ball_vx check if if it did, negate 3. the ball ran into anything the ball ran into anything to back up to the last valid X, and to back up to the last valid Y, and check if if it did, negate ball_vx/ball_vy ball_old_x = ball_x ball_x = ball_old_x ball_vx ball_y += ball_vy ball_y = ball_old_y ball_vy bits in the above are the “check if the ball ran into anything”. Walls and ceiling display_set_pixel When the ball hits a wall or the ceiling, it just bounces off as described above. The paddle The ball hits the paddle if and ball_y == PADDLE_Y ball_x >=
paddle_x and
The only way this can happen is during the “moving on the Y” step, so this can only bounce it upwards.
The bottom of the screen
When the ball hits the bottom of the screen, off_screen should be set to 1.
Change your loop to break if is not 0. This will cause to return to , which will re-set-up the paddle and ball.
You will then have to set off_screen back to 0 when you
setup the ball.
Make sure it waits for the player to hit a key before moving the
ball again!
The blocks
Colliding with (and breaking) blocks
This seems intimidating, but it is surprisingly simple. Here are some hints:
This can be done in constant time. That means you don’t need any loops. It doesn’t matter what direction the ball is moving. ball_vx/vy are not needed.
The blocks are stored in a 2D array. The ball has 2D coordinates.
That means there is a way to map from the ball’s coordinates to array
BOARD_BLOCK_BOTTOM is an important thing to consider, unless you like
accessing past the end of the array. If you like that, shame on you!!
“Breaking” the block just means storing a zero into that array element. will automatically not-draw it on the next frame.
And will automatically count fewer blocks, meaning the number onscreen goes down.
Isn’t code modularity nice?
Maybe you should put all this logic into a function that returns a boolean saying whether or not a block was broken, so that you can call this
ball_x < paddle_x + PADDLE_WIDTH play_game off_screen draw_blocks play_game main count_blocks_left function in two places Once for moving the ball on the X, once for moving it on the Y. And that way, it will bounce in the correct direction, too. Isn’t code reuse nice? Once this is working, you’re... done! When the number of blocks remaining hits 0, the program should exit (since both play_game and main ’s loops break when the count of blocks hits 0). Submission Be sure to review the grading rubric before submitting. You will submit a ZIP file containing: Your abc123_proj1.asm file (but renamed with your username). Put your name and username at the top of the file in comments. Also put any important notes to the TA at the top of this file in comments. For example, if you wrote some code that is never called, they will not see the behavior; tell them that you attempted it and you may get some partial credit. All the other .asm files I gave you. The TA should be able to unzip your ZIP file, open your _proj1.asm file in MARS, and assemble and run it without a problem. To make a ZIP file: 1. In your file browser, select all the files you want to add to the ZIP file (the files listed above). 2. Right click on the files, and... Windows: do Send To > Compressed (zipped) folder. Then you can rename it.
macOS: do Compress n items. Then you can rename the
Archive.zip file.

Linux: I’m sure you already know.
Then, once you’ve made the ZIP file, make sure to name it correctly. My
username is jfb42 , so:
– the one and only acceptable filename. – no extension
– uppercase is bad
– incomplete username
– no username
– it’s proj1 , not
jfb42_proj01.zip – it’s proj1 , not
literally anything other than the first thing on this list
Submit here. Drag your asm file into your browser to upload. If you can see your file in the folder, you uploaded it correctly!
You can also re-upload to resubmit. It will overwrite your old submission (but we can still access the old one through Box).
© 2016-2021 Jarrett Billingsley
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