# CS计算机代考程序代写 # Sets module

# Sets module

## `insert x a`

– Type: `’a -> ‘a list -> ‘a list`
– Description: Inserts `x` into the set `a`.
– Examples:
“`
insert 2 []
insert 3 (insert 2 [])
insert 3 (insert 3 (insert 2 []))
“`

## `insert_all xs s`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘a list -> ‘a list`
– Description: Inserts all the elements of list `xs` into the set `s`.

## `elem x a`

– Type: `’a -> ‘a list -> bool`
– Description: Returns true iff `x` is an element of the set `a`.
– Examples:
“`
elem 2 [] = false
elem 3 (insert 5 (insert 3 (insert 2 []))) = true
elem 4 (insert 3 (insert 2 (insert 5 []))) = false
“`

## `subset a b`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘a list -> bool`
– Description: Return true iff `a` **is a** subset of `b`. Formally, A ⊆ B ⇔ ∀x(xϵA ⇒ xϵB).
– Examples:
“`
subset (insert 2 (insert 4 [])) [] = false
subset (insert 5 (insert 3 [])) (insert 3 (insert 5 (insert 2 []))) = true
subset (insert 5 (insert 3 (insert 2 []))) (insert 5 (insert 3 [])) = false
“`

## `eq a b`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘a list -> bool`
– Description: Returns true iff `a` and `b` are equal as sets. Formally, A = B ⇔ ∀x(xϵA ⇔ xϵB). (Hint: The subset relation is anti-symmetric.)
– Examples:
“`
eq [] (insert 2 []) = false
eq (insert 2 (insert 3 [])) (insert 3 []) = false
eq (insert 3 (insert 2 [])) (insert 2 (insert 3 [])) = true
“`

## `remove x a`

– Type: `’a -> ‘a list -> ‘a list`
– Description: Removes `x` from the set `a`.
– Examples:
“`
elem 3 (remove 3 (insert 2 (insert 3 []))) = false
eq (remove 3 (insert 5 (insert 3 []))) (insert 5 []) = true
“`

## `minus a b`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘a list -> ‘a list`
– Description: Subtracts the set `b` from the set `a`.

## `union a b`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘a list -> ‘a list`
– Description: Returns the union of the sets `a` and `b`. Formally, A ∪ B = {x | xϵA ∨ xϵB}.
– Examples:
“`
eq (union [] (insert 2 (insert 3 []))) (insert 3 (insert 2 [])) = true
eq (union (insert 5 (insert 2 [])) (insert 2 (insert 3 []))) (insert 3 (insert 2 (insert 5 []))) = true
eq (union (insert 2 (insert 7 [])) (insert 5 [])) (insert 5 (insert 7 (insert 2 []))) = true
“`

## `intersection a b`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘a list -> ‘a list`
– Description: Returns the intersection of sets `a` and `b`. Formally, A ∩ B = {x | xϵA ∧ xϵB}.
– Examples:
“`
eq (intersection (insert 3 (insert 5 (insert 2 []))) []) [] = true
eq (intersection (insert 5 (insert 7 (insert 3 (insert 2 [])))) (insert 6 (insert 4 []))) [] = true
eq (intersection (insert 5 (insert 2 [])) (insert 4 (insert 3 (insert 5 [])))) (insert 5 []) = true
“`

## `product a b`

– Type: `’a list -> ‘b list -> (‘a * ‘b) list`
– Description: Returns the Cartesian product of sets `a` and `b`. Formally, A × B = {(x,y) | xϵA ∧ yϵB}. (Hint: You may find it useful to write a helper function.)
– Examples:
“`
eq (product [] []) [] = true
eq (product (insert 2 []) []) [] = true
eq (product (insert 2 []) (insert 2 [])) (insert (2,2) []) = true
eq (insert (2,3) (insert (2,9) [])) (product (insert 2 []) (insert 3 (insert 9 []))) = true
“`