Data Structure代写 | C代写 | 网络安全代写 – CS 6035 Introduction to Information Security

代做Project | Data Structure代写 | C代写 | 网络安全代写 – 这是一个典型的网络安全中二进制文件逆向分析的题目

CS 6035 Introduction to Information Security

project#1 Buffer Overflow

Fall 2018

The goals of this project:

  • Understanding the concepts of buffer overflow
  • Exploiting a stack buffer overflow vulnerability
  • Understanding code reuse attacks (advanced buffer overflow attacks)

Students should be able to clearly explain: 1) what is buffer overflow; 2) why buffer overflow is dangerous; 3) how to exploit a buffer overflow. With the knowledge about buffer overflow, students are expected to launch an attack that exploits a stack buffer overflow vulnerability in a provided toy program. Finally, students are asked to read up on and write about code reuse attacks.

1. Understanding Buffer Overflow

Note: For this task, you may use online resources to show a program with these vulnerabilities, but please cite these online sources. The diagrams should be your own ( not copied from the online resources). You can use Purdue OWL format for citing, as well as citation.

  1. Stack buffer overflow (25 points) a. (15 points) Memory Architecture. Describe the stack in the address space of the VM, in generalities. Specifically, address where in memory the stack would be located, what the stack structure looks like when data is pushed onto the stack and popped off the stack. Discuss what register values are placed onto the stack, where user variables are placed within the stack, where arguments would be placed in the stack relative to pertinent register storage within the stack, and finally how program control flow is implemented using the stack. How does the stack structure get affected when a buffer of size that does not match the memory alignment in the stack is allocated by a function (ie buffer size of say 9, which causes misalignment within the stack)? When a stack grows, in which direction, relative to overall memory, does a stack consume memory? b. (10 points) Write a testing program ( not sort.c from task 2) that contains a stack buffer overflow vulnerability. Show what the stack layout looks like and explain how to exploit it. In particular, please include in your diagram: (1) The order of parameters (if applicable), return address, saved registers (if applicable), and local variable(s), (2) their sizes in bytes, (3) size of the overflowing buffer to reach return address, and (4) the overflow direction in the stack (5) What locations within the stack are actually overwritten with your target data to exploit a stack to cause the routine you want to execute to be invoked? You are not required to write the real exploit code , but you may want to use some figures to make your description clear and concise.

  2. Heap buffer overflow (15 points) a. (5 points) Memory Architecture. Where is the Heap located in a machines memory map, in general. Contrast this to Stack memory allocation. b. (10 points) Write a testing program that contains a heap buffer overflow vulnerability. Show what the heap layout looks like and explain how to exploit it. In particular, please include in your diagram: (1) each chunk of memory allocated by malloc(), (2) their sizes in bytes, (3) metadata of heap as it gets overwritten, (4) the sizes of this metadata in bytes, and (5) which metadata get overwritten and how the attacker controls which value can get written to any arbitrary location in memory.

Address the Data structureimplemented in a heap memory. How are allocated and non-allocated chunks structured? Is heap memory contiguous within memory architecture? Again, you do not need to write and test the real exploit code, but you may want to use some figures to make your description clear and concise.

2. Exploiting Buffer Overflow ( 50 points )

The attached C code (sort.c) contains a stack buffer overflow vulnerability. Please write an exploit (by modifying data.txt) to open a shell on Linux. The high level idea is to overwrite the return address with the address of function system() , and pass the parameter /bin/sh to this function. Once the return instruction is executed, this function will be called to open a shell.

We have provided you with a virtual machine image for this project, use the latest version of VirtualBox. VirtualBox is a general-purpose full virtualizer for x86 hardware, targeted at server, desktop and embedded use. You can download it here:

We do not recommend using your own VM image. Our VMs image link is at the following:

As a general suggestion for the rest of the course (since we will be using virtual machines in 3 of the 4 projects) you will need to figure out how to share files between your VM and your computer, and how to take a screen shot of your VM.



  1. Import the OVA file to VirtualBox. (Username: ubuntu, Password: 123456)
  2. Compile the provided C code (which you will be exploiting): gcc sort.c -o sort -fno-stack- protector. (DO NOT use other options)
  3. To run this program, put some hexadecimal integers in the file: data.txt , and execute sort by: ./sort data.txt
  4. When you put a very long list of integers in data.txt , you will notice sort crashes with memory segfault, this is because the return address has been overwritten by your data. If you first answer step 1, part 1 above, you should understand the goal of this exploit and why a seg fault occurs. Pay attention to the non-binary allocated buffer and what it does to the stack structure (and you can see this in GDB).
  5. Now you can craft your shellcode in data.txt. Again, your goal is to overwrite the return address with the address of function system() and pass it with the address of string bin/sh. Do not use environment variables to store these addresses and then access those environment variables. Use the library addresses of system() and bin/sh explicitly. GDB (if youre using GDB for the first time, we recommend checking out GdbInit) can be used to find these library addresses and test/debug your exploit. However, it should be noted that your final exploit (i.e., the final version of your data.txt ) should work outside of GDB. Just running ./sort data.txt should spawn a shell for you.
  6. You can verify the exploit has occurred because you will get a new, clean command prompt.
But, how do we know it is not the same bash shell that invoked the sort program? To verify
you have successfully caused a buffer overflow, issuing echo $$ will give the process ID of the
current process. Issuing: echo $$ (shows PID of current bash shell), then run ./sort data.txt,
(then after sort completes to a clean shell) issue echo $$ to show the PID of the current
exploited shell. (noted  echo $0 instead of or in addition to echo $$ will return the name of the
current shell).
-- You will also see a different command prompt in the terminal  the successful exploit should
simply be a $
7) Provide a screenshot of you exploiting sort.
8) Have fun.

Deliverables: the data.txt file you craft and a screenshot of the exploit. The screenshot should be put into the PDF file (the same from task1). Also, in your report with the screenshot, please identify which OS, Version, and bus width OS you used which contains your VM (for example, PC, Windows 10, 64 bit).

3. Open Question ( 10 Points )

First, if you are not familiar with code reuse attacks, please read the following papers:

  1. The Geometry of Innocent Flesh on the Bone: Return-into-libc without Function Calls (on the x86)
  2. On the Effectiveness of Address-Space Randomization
  3. Code-pointer Integrity
  4. Control-Flow Bending: On the Effectiveness of Control-Flow Integrity
  5. ASLR-Guard: Stopping Address Space Leakage for Code Reuse Attacks

Then read the paper – Jump-oriented programming: a new class of code-reuse attack and explain the similarity and difference between Jump-Oriented Programing and Return-Oriented Programing.

Deliverable: write down your answer in the same pdf file of tasks 1 and 2.

4. The final deliverables:

A pdf file (containing the answers to all of the questions above) named your_gt_studentid_project1.pdf and the modified data.txt file (named data.txt) which exploits sort.c.

Put your studentID on the top of each page of your deliverable report, to help us when grading. To clarify, if my gt student id is lbrown318, I would submit lbrown318_project1.pdf and data.txt.

In Canvas, you will upload your project1.pdf file in assignment: Project 1 – Understanding Buffer and Heap Overflows (Report)

In Canvas, you will upload your data.txt file in assignment: Project 1 Task 2 – Stack Buffer Exploit


Failure to follow the instructions will cause unnecessary point loss.

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