程序代写代做代考 database Worksheets CO2008, Functional Programming

Worksheets CO2008, Functional Programming

2017, University of Leicester

Worksheet 4: Datatypes

Template file: Worksheet4.hs
Labs: Friday 10 and 17 March 2017
Hand-in: 21.00 hr on 19 Sunday March 2017
Topics: Algebraic and recursive types. Trees, paths and errors.

1. A pack of playing cards contains 52 cards. Each card has a ’value’ which
is taken to be an element of the type

data Value = A|Two|Three|Four|Five|Six|Seven|Eight|Nine|Ten|J|Q|K

and it has a ‘suite’ which is taken to be an element of the type

data Suite = Hearts | Spades | Clubs | Diamonds

A card is thus an element of

type Card = (Value, Suite)

(a) Define a show function for Value that transfers the values into the
following strings: ”A”, ”2”, …, ”10”, ”J”, ”Q”, ”K”,

(b) Define a show function for Suite that transfers the elements of Suite
into the strings: ”H”, ”S”, ”C”, ”D”

(c) (unassessed) Is it possible to write a show function for Card that
would transform (A,Heart) into the string AH.

(d) Give a concise definition of a value pack::[Card] containing all of
the possible playing cards in some order. Use list comprehension.

(e) There are two colours of playing card

data Colour = Red | Black

A card is Red if its suite is either Diamonds or Hearts and is Black
otherwise. Write a function to determine the colour of a card.

(f) A common way to shuffle a pack of cards is to repeatedly split the
pack roughly in the middle and then to interleave the two por-
tions. Write a function split::Int->[a]-> Error ([a],[a]) so
that split n divides a list in two at the point just after the n-th
element (we start counting from n=1). For instance,

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split 0 [1,2, 3,4,5] = Ok ([], [1,2,3,4,5])

split 2 [1,2, 3,4,5] = Ok ([1,2], [3,4,5])

Give an error in case the number is negative or larger than the length
of the list. For instance,

split 8 [1,2, 3,4,5] = Fail

split (-5) [1,2, 3,4,5] = Fail

Write a second function to interleave two lists of type [a], possibly of
different lengths. For instance, interleaving two list of integers looks
like this:

interleave [1,2,3] [4,5,6,7,8,9] = [1,4,2,5,3,6,7,8,9].

(g) A shuffle of the pack is specified by giving a list of integers. For
example, the list standard below corresponds to the shuffle in which
the pack is split after the 23rd card, interleaved, split again after the
26th card, interleaved, and so on.

standard :: [Int]

standard = [23,26,25,31,19,27]

Write a function shuffle which can be used on any list xs to calcu-
late the effect of shuffling the list according to a list of integers.

Use the functions split and interleave defined in the previous
part. Give an error in case split gives an error, i.e. give an error in
case there is a number which is negative or larger than the length of
the list xs.

2. A binary tree can be used as a database. Here, the leaves of a tree are
either ND indicating no data, or Data d where d is a data item.

data Btree a = ND | Data a | Branch (Btree a) (Btree a)

One can give a path to a leaf by giving a list such as [L,R,L] which
indicates the leaf one arrives at by moving left, right, left from the root of
the tree (of course, there may be no such leaf).

data Dir = L | R

type Path = [Dir]

(a) Define extract which given a path and a binary tree, outputs the
data at the end of the path, and gives an error value when the path
does not match any data.

(b) Define add, whose three inputs are some data, a path, and a binary
tree. The output consists of the binary tree, modified to include the
data item at the end of the path. In more detail, if the input path
ends in a leaf node of the form ND the tree is extended to contain the
new data. If the path leads to a branching node or a leaf node of the
form Data d an error value is given.

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(c) Suppose the tree holds data of type a. Define the function findpath,
which given a function f, some data x and a tree t, returns the lists
of paths (possible empty) in t to the nodes of the form Node d where
f d is equal to x.

3. Consider the following types:

data Tree a = U | F a (Tree a) (Tree a) deriving Show

type Person = String

We will use instances of this datatype to store genealogical information.
Example: the information that Anna has Fer-Jan and Paula as parents
will be denoted by

F “Anna” (F “Fer-Jan” U U) (F “Paula” U U).

It is convention that the second argument of F represents information
The letter U indicates the absence of information.

(a) Explain the phrase “deriving Show” in the declaration of Tree.
Also explain why there is no need for such a phrase in the declaration
of Person.

(b) What is the type of the function putString? Explain briefly the
effect of the term putStr “Hello”.

(c) For later use in this question: write down your favourite parametri-
cally polymorphic function

sort :: Eq a => (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]

that given a strict order relation ord and a given list xs, sorts xs
using ord.

Example: sort < [3,2,1] = [1,2,3] (d) In genealogy people occurring in a family tree are often labelled with a number, as follows: people at the root of the tree get number 1. Next we apply the rule that, if people have number n then his/her father will get number 2*n and his/her mother will get number 2*n+1, until all people in the tree have been labelled. Write down a function genlabel :: Tree a -> Tree (Int,a) that
adds a number to the elements of a tree following the above practice.

Example: genlabel (F “Fer-Jan” (F “Willem” U (F “Adriana”
U U)) U) = F (1,”Fer-Jan”) (F (2,”Willem”) U (F (5,”Adriana”)

U U)) U .

Larger terms in this F,U notation are pretty much unreadable. The family
tree of Anna that includes her grandparents would look like:

F “Anna” (F “Fer-Jan” (F “Willem” U U) (F “Nettie” U U)) (F “Paula”

(F “Mario” U U) (F “Martha” U U))

Genealogists have invented all sort of ways to print such terms either as
lists as 2-dimensional trees.

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(e) We want to print the above family tree of Anna as a list, using the
genealogical labelling of the previous item:

1: Anna

2: Fer-Jan

3: Paula

4: Willem

6: Mario

7: Martha

Write a function printlist :: Tree Person -> IO() that takes
a tree of type Tree Person and produces a list of labelled names,
ordered by the genealogical label and printed as the above example,
each label name of the form n: name on its own line.

Hint: given a tree, add genealogical labels to the tree, flatten the tree
to a list of pairs of type (Int,Person) and then pretty print the list
as indicated by the above example: each pair on its own line.

To finish, we want to print the above family tree of Anna as a 2D-tree as
follows:

Willem

Fer-Jan

Nettie

Anna

Mario

Paula

Martha

In this format the information of a person is printed between the lines
of the information of his/her parents, in so far as there is information of
them given. The indentation is produced with tab characters. If a person
has k generations distance from the root of the tree, then we use k tab
characters for indentation.

The above tree was the result of printing the following string:

“ Willem
Fer-Jan
Nettie
Anna
Mario
Paula
Martha

(f) Write a function print2Dtree :: Tree Person -> IO() that takes
a tree of type Tree Person and produces a family tree as above.

Hint: one possibility is to proceed more or less as in the previous
item. But take care that you print the names in the proper order:
children between their parents. Change the pretty printing, so that
the pairs pretty-print as indicated by the above example: each pair
(n, person) will be decoded in a string of characters beginning with
a suitable number of tab characters.

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