# CS代考计算机代写 cache Multiplication, Division, and Finite State Machines

Multiplication, Division, and Finite State Machines
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• Multiplication(3.3)
• Division(3.4)
• FiniteStateMachines(B.10)
Agenda
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Binary Multiplication and Division
• Working in base b, multiplication of a number Nb by b is equivalent to shifting the radix point one place to the right
– Example in base 10
143.2*10=1432 and 143.2/10=14.32
• Can we do the same thing for binary?
• Can do long division and multiplication? • What happens with signed numbers?

Multiplications
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• P=AxB
– A: Multiplicand – B: multiplier
– P: product
Revisit Integer Multiplication
• Multiplicand is multiplied by each bit of the multiplier
• Each intermediate result is added up to get the final product.
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Unsigned Binary Multiplication – Multiplicand: 64 bits shift (left) register
– Multiplier: 32bit shift (right) register to read the LSB on each add
– Product: 64bit register
– Counter: keep track of how many times we shift
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4bit Example Multiplicand: 1000 Multiplier: 1001 Repetition: 4
Refined Multiplication Circuit
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32 bits
write
Carry
High 32 bits initialized with zero
64bit result
Multiplicand
32bit ALU
Product
Shift right 32 bits
Control Test
32bits
32 bits
Low 32 bits initialized with multiplier
LSB

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operands were different
Signed Multiplication
• Convert the multiplier and the multiplicand to positive numbers and remember the original signs
• Multiplypositivenumbers
• The sign of the product is negative if the signs of the
• There are faster ways to do multiplication, but outside of scope of this course

Division
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4bit Example Dividend: 0111 Divisor: 0010 Repetition: 5
10 0111 10
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Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
0010 00000111 0010 0000
0010 00000111 00010 000
0010 00000111 00 0010 00
0010 00000111 000 00100
0010 00000011
00000010
0
00
000
0001
00011
Division for Positive Numbers
Normal Way
11
——- 11
10 —
1
Your computer is not that smart, it needs to do it step-by-step
————– 11
————– 1

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Division for Positive Numbers
Initialize Divisor in high word, 0 in low word
Initialize Quotient with 0
64 bits
Initialize Remainder with b
Divisor
Zero
Quotient
32 bits
32 bits 64 bits
Shift right
32bits
Shift left
64bit ALU 64 bits
control
Remainder
64bit
write
operation
Sign / most Significant Bit

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Division for Positive Numbers
4bit Example Dividend: 0111 Divisor: 0010 Repetition: 5
Initialize Divisor in high word, 0 in low word
Initialize Quotient with 0
64 bits
Initialize Remainder with b
Divisor
Zero
Quotient
32 bits
32 bits 64 bits
Shift right
32bits
Shift left
64bit ALU 64 bits
control
Remainder
64bit
write
operation
Sign / most Significant Bit

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64 bits
Division for Positive Numbers
4bit Example Dividend: 0111 Divisor: 0010 Repetition: 5
Initialize Divisor in high word, 0 in low word
Divisor
Zero
Quotient
32 bits
32 bits 64 bits
Shift right
32bits
Shift left
64 bit ALU
Init with Dividend Ends with Remainder
Sign / most Significant Bit
64 bits
control
operation
write

Finite State Machines
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Finite State Machines
Amusing illustration to introduce FSMs, but not a real or complete example

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• Transitions triggered by actions
Finite State Machines
• Finitesetofstatesencodedinasetofbits
• Combinatorialfunctionchoosesthenextstateasafunctionofthe current state and the inputs

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Finite State Machines
• TwoTypesofFSM
– Moore Machine: Output is dependent only on current state
– Mealy Machine: Output is dependent on both inputs and current state – We will focus only on Moore machines

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• TrafficlightsExample
– Only Red and Green lights – North South / East West
Finite State Machines
• Sensors to detect cars waiting
– Car waiting at either North or South (NSCar) – Car waiting at either East or West (EWCar)

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• Twostates
– NS light is green (with EW is light red) – EW light is green (with NS is light red)
Finite State Machines
• Transitions
– When car waiting in one direction, change light for that car – When cars sensed in both directions, light changes

State
NSCar EWCar
Next State
NSGreen NSGreen NSGreen NSGreen EWGreen EWGreen EWGreen EWGreen
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
NSGreen EWGreen NSGreen EWGreen EWGreen EWGreen NSGreen NSGreen
Outputs
Inputs
Finite State Machines
• Derive truth table for state transition and outputs COMP273 McGill
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State
NSLight EWLight
NSGreen EWGreen
1 0 0 1

State
NSCar EWCar
Next State
NSGreen NSGreen NSGreen NSGreen EWGreen EWGreen EWGreen EWGreen
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
NSGreen EWGreen NSGreen EWGreen EWGreen EWGreen NSGreen NSGreen
Outputs
Inputs
Finite State Machines
• Derive the Boolean functions for state transitions and outputs COMP273 McGill
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State NSLight
EWLight
NSGreen 1 EWGreen 0
0 1

State
NSCar EWCar
Next State
NSG0reen NSG0reen NSG0reen NSG0reen EWG1reen EWG1reen EWG1reen EWG1reen
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
NSG0reen EWG1reen NSG0reen EWG1reen EWG1reen EWG1reen NSG0reen NSG0reen
Outputs
Inputs
Finite State Machines
• Internally, all states are represented in binary COMP273 McGill
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State
NSLight
EWLight
010 101

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• •
Put functions in sum of products canonical form and implement with a PLA
FSM Recipe
• FSM=StateRegister+CombinationalLogic • Create the circuits from Boolean functions
ImplementfunctionasaROM(inputand states form address, outputs and next state are contents)

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Other Examples • Odd parity checker
Reset
• FiniteStringPatternRecognizer
• ComplexCounterwithDecisionMaking
0
Odd [1]
– E.g., count in Gray code, or count in binary based on mode control • DigitalCombinationLock
– Lock which only opens when correct binary combination is entered
• Control processor execution (Chapter 4)
• Control cache (Chapter 5)
1
1
0 [0]
Even

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“Puppeteer pulling strings”
“Puppet”
Control
Control Signal Outputs
Datapath
FSM generating sequences of control signals instructs datapath what to do next
State
Registers
Busses
Combinational Functional Units (e.g., ALU)
The Big Picture Computer Hardware = Datapath + Control
Inputs

• Multiplication(Section3.3)
• Division (Section 3.4)
• FiniteStateMachines(SectionB.10)
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