# CS代考计算机代写 ocaml Haskell 2. Recursive types and recursive expressions

2. Recursive types and recursive expressions
1 Representing propositional formulas in Haskell
You may have seen recursive definitions like (1) before.
(1) The set F of propositional formulas is defined as the smallest set such that: a. T∈F
b. F∈F
c. ifφ∈F,then¬φ∈F
d. ifφ∈F andψ∈F,then(φ∧ψ)∈F e. ifφ∈F andψ∈F,then(φ∨ψ)∈F
We can define a Haskell type to represent these formulas in a way that very closely matches this definition: (2) data Form = T | F | Neg Form | Cnj Form Form | Dsj Form Form deriving Show
The five constructors here (T, F, Neg, Cnj and Dsj) correspond to the five “ways to be a formula” given in (1).
So we can use the Haskell expression Dsj (Neg T) (Cnj F T) to represent the formula (¬T ∨ (F ∧ T)). We can write a Haskell function to, for example, remove all negations from a formula, like this:
(3) removeNegs = form ->
case form of
T -> T
F -> F
Neg phi -> removeNegs phi
Cnj phi psi -> Cnj (removeNegs phi) (removeNegs psi)
Dsj phi psi -> Dsj (removeNegs phi) (removeNegs psi)
The standard denotations of these formulas is defined as follows:
(4) a. 􏰀T􏰁 is true b. 􏰀F􏰁 is false
c. 􏰀¬φ􏰁 is true if 􏰀φ􏰁 is false; and is false otherwise
d. 􏰀φ ∧ ψ􏰁 is true if both 􏰀φ􏰁 is true and 􏰀ψ􏰁 is true; otherwise, 􏰀φ ∧ ψ􏰁 is false e. 􏰀φ ∨ ψ􏰁 is true if either 􏰀φ􏰁 is true or 􏰀ψ􏰁 is true; otherwise, 􏰀φ ∨ ψ􏰁 is false
A Haskell function to calculate the denotation of a formula follows exactly the same pattern as the removeNegs function above. This is because pretty much anything you might want to “do with” a formula follows this pattern: there’s no sharp distinction to be made, computationally, between calculating the denotation of a formula and calculating the negation-free-version of a formula.
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

2 A very simple recursive type
The Form type that we defined above is an example of a recursive type. For a deeper understanding of exactly how these work it’s useful to look at an extremely simple example of a recursive type, namely the type Numb which is defined like this:
(5) data Numb = Z | S Numb deriving Show
It’s just like the Result type from last week, except that the thing “inside” it is another thing of the same
type (whereas the thing “inside” a Result is a Shape).
We can write some simple functions that work with this type.
isZero =
-> case n of {Z -> True; S n’ -> False}
isOne =
-> case n of
Z -> False
S n’ -> case n’ of {Z -> True; S n’’ -> False}
lessThanTwo =
-> case n of
Z -> True
S n’ -> case n’ of {Z -> True; S n’’ -> False} The evaluation rules for Numb follow the pattern we saw with the Result type:
(1) case Z of {Z -> e1; S v-> e2}=⇒e1 case (S e) of {Z -> e1; S v-> e2} =⇒ [e/v]e2
Here’s how evaluation proceeds if we use the lessThanTwo function above on S Z (i.e. on “the number one”).
lessThanTwo (S Z)
=⇒ (
-> case n of {Z -> True; S n’ -> case n’ of {Z -> True; S n’’ -> False}}) (S Z) =⇒ case (S Z) of {Z -> True; S n’ -> case n’ of {Z -> True; S n’’ -> False}}
=⇒ [Z/n’]case n’ of {Z -> True; S n’’ -> False} = case Z of {Z -> True; S n’’ -> False} =⇒ True
Recursive expressions
Each of the functions for working with Numbs above only looks a fixed depth into the structure of its argument. For this reason, each of these functions is insensitive to distinctions between the various Numbs that differ in ways that one can only see by looking beyond that fixed depth. To write functions that are sensitive to all of the distinctions between the various Numbs, we need a way to express the idea of “keeping going as far as necessary”.
This requires something new: recursively defined expressions.
We’ve already seen expressions of the form let v = e1 in e2, where the variable v is bound within e2.
What we left aside last week is that the variable v is actually bound inside e1 too.1 For example, we can define and use a function for doubling Numbs like this:
(2) let f =
-> case n of {Z -> Z; S n’ -> S (S (f n’))} in f (S (S (S Z)))
1In this respect, Haskell is different from OCaml: in OCaml an expression of the form let v = e1 in e2 only binds v within e2, and if you want it bound in e1 as well you need to make this explicit by using let rec. In Haskell, every let works like OCaml’s let rec.
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

Notice that f appears in between the equals sign and the in.
How does an expression like this get evaluated? It actually requires a couple of special tricks2 under the hood, but to a good first approximation (good enough for us throughout this course) we can think of it like this:
(3) letf=
->casenof{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))}inf(S(S(SZ))) =⇒ (
->casenof{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))})(S(S(SZ))) =⇒ case(S(S(SZ)))of{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))}
=⇒ [S (S Z)/n’]S (S (f n’))=S (S (f (S (S Z))))
􏰂 S(S((
->casenof{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))})(S(SZ)))) =⇒ S(S(case(S(SZ))of{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))}))
=⇒ S(S(S(S(f(SZ)))))
􏰂 S(S(S(S((
->casenof{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))})(SZ))))) =⇒ S(S(S(S(case(SZ)of{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))}))))
=⇒ S(S(S(S(S(S(fZ))))))
􏰂 S(S(S(S(S(S((
->casenof{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))})Z)))))) =⇒ S(S(S(S(S(S(caseZof{Z->Z;Sn’->S(S(fn’))}))))))
=⇒ S(S(S(S(S(SZ)))))
It’s a good exercise to think about why this sequence of evaluation steps doesn’t follow from the evaluation rules for let-expressions that we introduced last week (i.e. what’s being glossed over by the 􏰂 symbol above).
3 Another recursive type: lists/strings
We can represent lists of, say, integers, using a very similar structure to what we used for Numb. (6) data IntList = Empty | NonEmpty Int IntList deriving Show
For example, the list containing 5 followed by 7 followed by 2 (and nothing else) would be represented as: (7) NonEmpty 5 (NonEmpty 7 (NonEmpty 2 Empty))
Using this type we could write a function to calculate, say, the sum of such a list of integers like this:
(8) total = l -> case l of Empty -> 0
NonEmpty x rest -> x + total rest
Haskell has a built-in type to represent lists, which uses some compact syntax. The compact syntax is convenient, but it can obscure the fact that this built-in type actually has exactly the same kind of recursive structure as this IntList type. Using this built-in type, we write the list containing 5 then 7 then 2 as in (9) instead of (7); and we write the function for summing a list as in (10) instead of (8).
(9) 5:(7:(2:[]))
(10) total = l -> case l of [] -> 0
x : rest -> x + total rest
2If you’re curious, look up recursion and fixed point operators. It’s closely related to the idea of “boosting” a partially- working function, which is discussed in the appendix.
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

The differences are just that:
• the built-in type uses [] instead of Empty;
• the built-in type uses the colon (“cons”) instead of NonEmpty; and
• the colon is written between its two arguments, unlike NonEmpty and other constructors we’ve seen.
And, as an added convenient-but-potentially-misleading bonus, we can also write [5,7,2] in place of 5 : (7 : (2 : [])).
4 Regular expressions and stringsets
Now we can put some of these ideas together to start talking about something that looks (a bit) like linguistics.
Some standard stage-setting concepts:
(11) For any set Σ, we define Σ∗ as the smallest set such that: • ε∈Σ∗,and
• ifx∈Σandu∈Σ∗ then(x:u)∈Σ∗.
(12) Foranytwostringsu∈Σ∗ andv∈Σ∗,wedefineu+vasfollows: • ε+v=v
• (x:w)+v=x:(w+v)
First we’ll define what regular expressions are, i.e. what counts as a regular expression. That’s all we’re
saying in (13). It’s analogous to defining what counts as a propositional formula in (1).
(13) Given an alphabet Σ, we define RE(Σ), the set of regular expressions over Σ, as follows:
• ifx∈Σ,thenx∈RE(Σ)
• ifr1 ∈RE(Σ)andr2 ∈RE(Σ),then(r1 |r2)∈RE(Σ)
• ifr1 ∈RE(Σ)andr2 ∈RE(Σ),then(r1·r2)∈RE(Σ)
• ifr∈RE(Σ),thenr⋆ ∈RE(Σ)
• 0 ∈ RE(Σ)
• 1 ∈ RE(Σ)
So if we have the alphabet Σ = {a, b, c}, then here are some elements of RE(Σ):
(14) a. (a|b)
b. ((a|b)·c)
c. ((a|b)·c)⋆
Now, any regular expression r ∈ RE(Σ) denotes a particular subset of Σ∗, i.e. denotes a stringset. We’ll write 􏰀r􏰁 for the stringset denoted by r. (The following definition is analogous to the definition of the denotations of propositional formulas in (4).)
(15) Given a regular expression r ∈ RE(Σ), we define the set 􏰀r􏰁 ⊆ Σ∗ as follows: a. 􏰀x􏰁={x}
b. 􏰀(r1 |r2)􏰁=􏰀r1􏰁∪􏰀r2􏰁
c. 􏰀(r1 ·r2)􏰁={u+v|u∈􏰀r1􏰁,v∈􏰀r2􏰁}

d. 􏰀r 􏰁 is the smallest set such that: ⋆
• ε ∈ 􏰀r 􏰁
• ifu∈􏰀r􏰁andv∈􏰀r 􏰁,thenu+v∈􏰀r 􏰁
⋆⋆
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

e. 􏰀0􏰁=∅={} f. 􏰀1􏰁={ε}
The tricky part here is the r case. It says roughly that 􏰀r 􏰁 is the set comprising all strings that we can get by concatenating zero or more strings from the set 􏰀r􏰁. Concatenating zero such strings produces ε,

We can use this definition to work out the stringsets denoted by the regular expressions in (14).
(16) a. 􏰀(a|b)􏰁=􏰀a􏰁∪􏰀b􏰁 = {a} ∪ {b}
= {a, b}
b. 􏰀((a|b)·c)􏰁={u+v|u∈􏰀(a|b)􏰁,v∈􏰀c􏰁}
= {u + v | u ∈ {a, b}, v ∈ {c}} = {a + c, b + c}
= {ac, bc}

⋆⋆
so ε ∈ 􏰀r 􏰁. Concatenating n such strings, where n is non-zero, really means concatenating some string u, which is in 􏰀r􏰁, with some string v, which is the result of concatenating some n − 1 such strings.
c. 􏰀((a|b)·c) 􏰁={ε,ac,bc,acac,acbc,bcac,bcbc,acacac,acacbc,…}
(appendices on the following pages)
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

A Appendix: The logic behind recursive functions
Learning to write recursive functions can be tricky.3 Let’s take a close look at the logic of “discovering” the definition of the double function.
Suppose as a starting point we define double1, which gives the right answer only for zero and one, and double2, which gives the right answer only for zero, one and two, as follows:
(17) double1 =
->
(18) double2 =
->
case n of
Z -> Z
S n’ -> S (S Z)
case n of
Z -> Z
S n’ -> case n’ of {Z -> S (S Z); S n’’ -> S (S (S (S Z)))}
Neither of these is recursive, but working out the relationship between these two functions is the key to working out how to write our fully-fledged double function.
Notice that, if double2 is given any non-zero number (i.e. anything of the form (S …)), the result will never be less than two, i.e. the result will be of the form (S (S …)). So, pulling those two layers out to the front, we can rewrite double2 like this:
(19) double2 =
-> case n of Z -> Z
S n’ -> S (S (case n’ of {Z -> Z; S n’’ -> S (S Z)}))
Now here comes the crucial step. The thing that’s inside (S (S …)) now is exactly equivalent to double1 n’. So we can rewrite double2 again like this:
(20) double2 =
-> case n of Z -> Z
S n’ -> S (S (double1 n’))
And importantly, we can generalize: the logic here has nothing in particular to do with one and two, it applies to any number and its successor. For example if we suppose, just for the sake of argument, that someone had already written a function called double73 which — somehow, we don’t really care how — correctly doubles any number up to and including 73. Then we could write double74, which goes one better, like this:
(21) double74 =
-> case n of Z -> Z
S n’ -> S (S (double73 n’))
Notice that each of these partially-working doubling functions has type Numb -> Numb. We can encapsulate that relationship that holds between double1 and double2, and holds between double73 and double74, and so on, into a function with type (Numb -> Numb) -> (Numb -> Numb). Given any partially-working doubling function, the following function doubleBooster will produce a new partially-working function that goes one better:
(22) doubleBooster = f ->
-> case n of Z -> Z
S n’ -> S (S (f n’))
3Graham Hutton puts it nicely in his textbook, Programming in Haskell (p.66): “Defining recursive functions is like riding a bicycle: it looks easy when someone else is doing it, may seem impossible when you first try to do it yourself, but becomes simple and natural with practice.”
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

This function will turn double1 into double2, will turn double73 into double74, etc.4 And notice that doubleBooster is a closed term: it does not contain any free variables, nor any recursion.
The important idea to take away is this: when we use the name of the function-being-defined inside that function, we’re using it in the way that doubleBooster uses its argument f. Your task in writing a recursive function is just to say how we “boost” a partially-working function into a function that goes one better.
B Appendix: Recursion and induction
You’ve probably seen proofs by induction before. This is a technique for proving that some property holds of all natural numbers. To construct such a proof, you proceed in two steps. First, you show that the property holds of zero; this is known as the “base case”. Second, you show that if the property holds of some number k then it also holds of k + 1; this is known as the “inductive step”.
Here’s an example:
(23) Prove that, for all natural numbers n, the sum of all natural numbers less than or equal to n is n×(n+1) .
2
a. Base case: We need to show that zero has the relevant property, i.e. that the sum of all natural numbers less than or equal to zero is 0×(0+1) . Well, the sum of all natural numbers less than or
2
equal to zero is zero, and 0×(0+1) = 0, so this part is done. 2
b. Inductive step: We need to show that if k has the relevant property then k + 1 does too. In
other words, we need to show that the sum of all natural numbers less than or equal to k + 1
is (k+1)×((k+1)+1) , and we get to assume, along the way, that the sum of all natural numbers less 2
than or equal to k is k×(k+1) . Well, the sum of all natural numbers up to k + 1 is 2
(0 + 1 + 2 + · · · + k) + (k + 1)
and by the assumption that we get to make about k this is equal to
+ (k + 1) which we can reshuffle to the desired result as follows:
k × (k + 1) 2
2 × (k + 1) 222
k2 +3×k+2 2
(k + 1) × (k + 2) 2
(k + 1) × ((k + 1) + 1) 2
Since this property holds of zero, and it holds of k + 1 whenever it holds of k, we can conclude that
it holds for all natural numbers.
A similar logic underlies the recursive functions we can write on the type Numb. In particular, the way we assume that the function we’re writing will work on smaller arguments corresponds precisely to the way we assume that k has the relevant property when we’re trying to show that k + 1 has it. For example, when we write the recursive call to f in
f =
-> case n of {Z -> Z; S n’ -> S (S (f n’))}
4And actually, if we define double0 as n-> Z (i.e. the version of the function that works correctly only for zero), then it will also turn double0 into double1. But it’s more intuitive maybe to start with double1.
k × (k + 1) k × (k + 1) + (k + 1) =
+
=
=
=
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA

we assume that the function works correctly on the argument n’, as part of our getting it to work correctly on the argument S n’, i.e. on the argument n.
To bring out the connection, we can write out a proof by induction that this function f really does double its argument. We need a bit of notation to make this precise: I’ll write Sn Z for the expression which is Z withn-manySs“ontopofit”,so S0 Z is Z, S1 Z is S Z, S2 Z is S (S Z),etc.
(24) Prove that, for all natural numbers n, f (Sn Z) will evaluate to S2n Z.
a. Base case: The term whose evaluation we are interested in is f (S0 Z), i.e. f Z. This will
evaluate to Z via the first branch in the case statement, which is S2×0 Z as required.
b. Inductive step: We need to show that f (Sk+1 Z) evaluates to S2(k+1) Z, and we get to as- sume, along the way, that f (Sk Z) evaluates to S2k Z. To begin, notice that f (Sk+1 Z) is
f (S (Sk Z)),sobythesecondbranchofthecasestatementthiswillevaluatetoS (S (f (Sk Z)).
By the inductive assumption, this evaluates to S (S (S2k Z)), which is S2k+2 Z = S2(k+1) Z, as required.
Ling185A, Winter 2021 — Tim Hunter, UCLA