CS代写 ICT373: Software Architectures – cscodehelp代写

Topic 2: Advanced Java – objects,
composition, inheritance Sub Topic 1: Java, Objects and UML
ICT373: Software Architectures

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• WWW based Client-server programming • Validation
• JavaScript

• Java overview • Objects
• Java revision
• O-O design and The Unified Modelling Language (UML)
Textbook (11th ed.) Chapters 1-8

Learning Objectives (1/2)
• Give an overall description of the Java language and the Java SDK.
• Explain the Java architecture, and describe the role of byte-codes, Java API and the JVM in using Java code.
• Explain why Java is regarded as architecture neutral.
• Be able to write and document applications in Java that conforms
to normal standards and style.
• Describe Java’s object model: the role of primitives, objects, classes and references to objects.
• Explain how Java objects are created and destroyed?
• Explain the use of static data and functions.
• Explain the use of wrappers for primitives.

Learning Objectives (2/2)
• Be able to use classes from the standard libraries (Java Platform Packages).
• Be able to use arrays in a Java program.
• Be able to use the Javadoc documentation facility.
• Be able to locate information from the Java on-line documentation.
• Describe the general principles of Object-Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE).
• Describe the main steps in Object-Oriented design.
• Describe the UML notation for individual classes and associations between them.

What is Java? (1/2)
• a free object-oriented general purpose programming language designed to be able to be used easily with the Internet.
• a popular choice for implementing O-O designs and for developing web- based applications.
• architecturally neutral, i.e. a program can run on a variety of different types of machine.
• Java SE 7: (new features)
• strings in switch statement,
• multi-catch exception handling,
• try-with-resources statement,
• numeric literals with underscores,
• binary integer literals,
• and improved type inference for generic instance creation.

What is Java? (2/2)
• Java SE 8: (new features)
• was released in March 2014
• is the default download version on java.com since October 2014.
• Prior to Java SE 8, Java supported three programming paradigms
• procedural programming,
• object-oriented programming and
• generic programming.
• Java SE 8 adds functional programming.

The JDK (Java SE 8/ JDK 8) (1/2)
• Java development tools, including the compiler, and debugger
• Java Runtime Environment (JRE) including the Java Virtual Machine (interpreter) and Java class libraries (APIs)
• supporting tools and components
• demo programs
• documentation
Commercially available integrated development environments (IDEs) allow these components to be used together in a user-friendly, productive way. Eg, NetBeans, Eclipse
In lectures and labs we will mostly use the NetBeans IDE and the basic command line versions (Command prompt under Windows).

The JDK (Java SE 8/ JDK 8) (2/2)
• The Java compiler is called “javac”.
• Use it to compile a text file containing the java source code.
• The result is a file of (sort of) executable code called Java bytecodes.
• To execute the bytecode file, needs a Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
• Which one to use depends on the environment and operating
• For command line running of ordinary programs (=application programs), we use the interpreter (JVM) called “java” (appropriate versions of this are supplied for Windows, Linux, Mac, etc ).

Java Architecture (1/2)
• Java’s architecture arises out of four interrelated technologies:
• the Java programming language
• the Java Application Programming Interface (API)
• the Java class file format
• the Java virtual machine (JVM)
• A program in source files (written in the Java programming language) is compiled into Java class files, and the class files are run on a JVM.
• System resources (e.g. I/O) are accessed by calling methods in the classes that implement the Java API.

Java Architecture (2/2)
• The Java API is a set of runtime libraries that give you a standard way to access the system resources of a host computer.
• The JVM and Java API together form a platform for which all Java programs are compiled – called Java 2 Platform or the Java runtime system.
• The compiled Java program, in byte code, can run on any machine where the Java Platform (JRE) is present.
• Java programs can run on many different kinds of computers because the Java Platform can itself be implemented in software.

Architecture Neutral
• The compiled Java program, in bytecodes, should run in exactly the same way under different operating systems, i.e., Java is Architecture Neutral.
• We say that the bytecodes are being run on a JVM and that the various interpreters are implementations of the JVM.
• Java source code can be compiled on any machine (with SDK), the compiled code can be sent to any other machine (e.g., over the Internet) and we know that the program will run as planned provided the second machine has an implementation of the JVM e.g., in a browser.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

Java Virtual Machine (JVM) (1/3) • The Java virtual machine is an abstract computer.
• Its specification enables it to be implemented on a wide variety of computers and devices.
• JVM’s main job is to load class files and execute the bytecodes they contain.
• JVM contains a class loader, which loads class files from both the program and the Java API.
• The bytecodes are executed in an execution engine (part of the virtual machine) which can vary in different implementations.
• The simplest form of execution engine just interprets the bytecodes one at a time. That is why sometimes the JVM is called the Java interpreter.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM) (2/3)
• Just-in-time (JIT) compilation, also known as dynamic translation, is compilation done during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
• Optimise
• Most often this consists of translation to machine code, which is then
executed directly, but can also refer to translation to another format.
• Garbage collection is a form of automatic memory management. The garbage collector, or just collector, attempts to reclaim garbage, or memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use by the program.
• Unlike C/C++ where you need to free unused memory explicitly.
• When running on a JVM that is implemented in software on top of a host operating system, a Java program interacts with the host by invoking native methods.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM) (3/3)
• While you can write applications entirely in Java, there are situations where Java alone does not meet the needs of your application. Programmers use the JNI to write Java native methods to handle those situations when an application cannot be written entirely in Java.
• A native method is written in some other language, such as C, C++, or assembly, and compiled to the native machine code of a particular computer.
• Native methods are stored in a dynamically linked library whose exact form is platform specific. While Java methods are platform independent, native methods are not.
• The implementation of the JVM can also include:
• a safe execution environment (called the Sandbox) which checks for
various file access and network access security violations.
• Note that Java was designed to run its applets within a sandbox of safety which prevents the applet from writing to disk or accessing memory outside the sandbox, or erasing from a disk (as viruses do).

• Besides applications, Java is often used to program applets. Running a (compiled) applet can be done in several ways:
• browsers (e.g., Firefox and Explorer) can interpret them;
• Oracle (previously Sun) provides a plug-in and a tool (“jre”) for any
• use a command line tool called “appletviewer”; or
• your IDE should be able to easily run applets.
• Applets are embedded in a web page for execution. An HTML document must be created to load the applet.
• The applet class must be compiled before it can execute.
• The HTML document must indicate which applet the applet container should load and execute.

An Example JAVA Program
Compiling and executing this program results in:
Hello Class
being output on the screen.
run from command prompt with command line arguments, as follows: java HelloClass Greetings ICT373 Students

Description of the program
• This program defines a publically accessible class of objects called “HelloClass”.
• The class has one method (a static or class method) which is the main method and so is called when the program is executed. The method can be given command line arguments which, in this example, are outputted to the screen.
• When the method is called the string argument “Hello Class” is given to the println method of the out object (the current value of a public member variable) belonging to the System class (defined in a library which manages the program’s environment).
• The next statement outputs the contents of the String array args.

Another program

• Other methods of Scanner class include:
nextInt(), nextFloat(), nextDouble(), nextLong(), hasNext(),
hasNextInt(), hasNextFloat(), hasNextLine() etc.
• See the Scanner class documentation for full details.
• Online Java documentation can be found via http://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/

Objects: Key characteristics of an O-O language
• Everything is an object.
• A program is a bunch of objects telling each other what to do by
sending messages.
• Each object has its own memory made up of other objects.
• Every object has a type.
• All objects of a particular type can receive the same messages.

• Each of the values that are manipulated in a Java will be of a certain type. The type determines what can be done with the value.
• Most of the values will be objects of class type, i.e. a type defined by a class definition in the program or in another file or library file.
• The only other values are values of a primitive built-in type such as boolean, char, int, float or double.
• Each variable in the program also has a type, either class type or primitive type. The type of a variable must be declared in the program.
• As the program runs, at each moment, each variable may (or may not) be associated with a value of the same type.
• A variable of primitive type stores a direct representation of its value.
• A variable of a class type may contain a reference to an object (of that type) that is stored elsewhere. The variable may instead contain a null reference.

Creation of Objects and Declaration of Variables
• To use a new object, it needs to be created. This is done via the new keyword in the format
type var = new type (args); where:
• var is a variable of the right type to reference the object;
• type is the (class) type of the new object;
• args is a possibly empty list of values which determine which object of that type gets constructed.
• a constructor for that class is called with the supplied arguments to construct the object.
• The code for construction (if any) resides in the constructor method in the code for the class definition wherever that is.

Creation of Objects and Declaration of Variables
• When new is used,
• space for the new object is allocated on the heap (area of
• the object is constructed there and the variable is given a reference to the object.
• Declaring variables can be done anywhere in the program (before the variable is used) and should include initialization:
float g = 9.8;
String greeting = new String (“hello’’);

Destroying Objects
• When a variable goes out of scope then the program might lose all reference to a particular object.
• The Java runtime system will notice this fact and, knowing that the object can no-longer play any part in the program, a background process called the garbage collector eventually releases the memory for that object.
• No need for the programmer to explicitly reclaim the memory.
• Some objects may require certain actions to be taken before they disappear. E.g., a network connection or file is to be closed properly.
• the garbage collector looks for and runs a method called finalize() if such a method is supplied for the class of object which is being destroyed.

Doing things to objects • Objects in a class have
• fields = named components of the object of fixed type (also known as instance variables or data members); and
• methods = named functions with typed arguments, return type and coded effect on the fields.
• The actual values of the fields for a particular object may change during running of the program and together they define the state of the object.

Doing things to objects
• The state can be changed (subject to appropriate permissions) and/or state info got by:
• direct assignment to the named field in the object currently referenced by a variable
var.field = value;
• or direct access
var2 = var.field;
• calling a method for the referenced object
var2 = var.method(args);
• Variables declared final cannot be changed.
• Values can be assigned (using shallow copy):
var2 = var1;

Methods and Controls
• In programs things are done in methods.
• Every method belongs to a class and is defined within the class declaration in code like:
modifiers return-type method-name ( typed parameters) { body
• When the method is called for a particular object of that class, the parameters are given the values in the corresponding arguments and the body is executed.
• When the statement return value is encountered in the body then the specified value is returned.
• There need be no return statement if the return type is void. No value is returned by such a method.

Methods and Controls
• Control in the body is with if/if-else, switch, for, while, do-
while etc.
• Parameters of primitive type are passed by value to the method.
• Class type parameters also have their argument passed by value. However, the value is a reference to an object!
• the argument object may be changed by the method.
• On the other hand, the argument variable is not passed and so cannot have its value changed – it keeps referring to the original object even if that object is changed or the parameter is made to refer to a different object.

Call by value / reference
Foo f = new Foo(“f”);
public static void
changeReference(Foo a) changeReference(f);

Call by value / reference
Foo b = new Foo(“b”);
a = b is re- assigning the reference a NOT f to the object whose its attribute is “b”.
modifyReference(Foo c)
will change the attribute of the object that reference c points to it, and it’s same object that reference f points to it.

Static members
• Members usually belong to objects of the class. However, sometimes it is useful to have members, which belong to the class as a whole: class members and class methods.
• These are declared in the class with the modifier static.
• If a data member is declared static then only one such value exists at any one time during the running of the program. It can be accessed by classname.field. The objects of the class can all access this one value. The value is initialized (as per code in the declaration) when the class is “loaded” when it is first needed.
• Static methods can also be defined. They can be called via classname.method(args) even if no objects of that class exist. They can only access static data members of the class.
• The main method of class X is run first when X.java is interpreted. It is a static method (there is no X object at the start).
• The main method has one array parameter which is an array of String objects given values in the command line arguments.

Notes on Primitive Types: Wrappers
• Sometimes it is convenient to represent values of primitive types as class objects. To allow this, each primitive type is provided (in the java.lang library package) with a corresponding class called a wrapper class.
• Examples are: Integer, Double and Character classes. Eg Integer fred = new Integer(2);
• (This is useful as some container classes are only able to contain objects – see later).
• The above type conversion from a value of a primitive type (eg, int) to a corresponding object of its associated wrapper class (eg, Integer) is called boxing.
• Unwrapping, e.g., int i =fred.intValue();
• This reverse conversion from an object of wrapper class to its associated primitive type is called unboxing.

• Starting with version 5.0, Java will automatically do this boxing and unboxing (called autoboxing and auto-unboxing of primitives). Eg, In Java 5.0 the above examples can be written as
Integer fred = 2; // autoboxing
int i = fred; // fred is an object of class Integer
• The automatic boxing and unboxing also apply to parameters,
• a primitive argument can be provided for a corresponding formal parameter of the associated wrapper class, and a wrapper class argument can be provided for a corresponding formal parameter of the associated primitive type.

To convert a string containing an integer (eg “23”) to an int, use Integer class static methods as follows:
int i=Integer.valueOf(str).intValue();
int number = Integer.parseInt (inputString); String str = “ 99.95 ”;
double d = Double.parseDouble(str.trim());
// if the string has leading or trailing whitespaces.
Methods for converting strings to the corresponding numbers are also available. E.g., Integer.toString(123), Long.toString(123), and Double.toString(99.95)

Notes on Primitive Types (cont.)
• Automatic type conversion, as in C++, e.g.
float g = 6 + ( 2 / 3 ); // (? what ends up in g ?)
• Explicit casting can be done as in C++, eg int n = (int)(6+ ((float)2) / ((float)3));

Library Classes
• Java includes many ready-built classes. These supply well- designed data structures or help with input and output, networking, and GUIs.
• Some library classes are used directly by the compiler.
• Information on the classes can be found in the on-line
documentation via the package.html page.
• The classes in the package java.lang are automatically available to any program. E.g., java.lang.System, java.lang.Integer and java.lang.Math.
• Other classes need to be imported either on their own import packagename.classname;
or with the whole package import packagename.*;
Eg, java.util.Random, java.util.Date or java.math.BigInteger.

Library Classes
• Note that java.lang.Math (which is automatically available) contains all the basic mathematical functions like absolute values, random numbers and square roots.
• These are available as static methods of the class so you don’t have any need to create a java.lang.Math object but you do need to call them properly, e.g. Math.abs(x).

An example

Arrays in Java
• An array is a (linear) collection of objects of the same type. Each array is itself an object (but there is no class of arrays).
• A variable can be declared to be capable of referring to arrays of specific types, eg,
int[] a; Fraction[] fa;
• A new array object can be created, eg, a = new int[7];
fa = new Fraction[2];
• Combined declaration + object creation; int [] a = new int[7];

Arrays in Java
• Now a[0], …, a[6] exist and are all 0. However, fa[0] and fa[1] exist but are null references. You need to initialize these references, e.g.,
fa[0] = new Fraction(1,2); fa[1] = fa[0];
• Each array has a data member length which can be looked up but not changed, eg,
int le = fa.length;
• Run-time errors result from trying to use an invalid array index.

Comments: Javadoc
• If you run the tool “javadoc” on a program with documentation comments you get a nice HTML page summarizing the classes defined in it. For more info on javadoc, visit http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/i ndex-jsp-135444.html

Unified Modelling Languages (UML)

Object Oriented Design
• The general principles behind OOSE are:
• use of abstraction, encapsulation and interfaces
• re-use of exchangeable compone

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