Project Guidelines
This assessment task aims to give you hands-on experience in executing innovative projects involving the topics covered in this subject. You are required to conduct an in-depth study of one of the following topics provided as examples below (or a similar topic which you have discussed in advance with the instructor), ideally leading to an innovative solution to the problem being addressed. Once you have identified a topic, you must survey existing work in that area (both in the academic literature and in the commercial/tool development space) in considerable detail. Ideally, your project report should also propose a novel solution in that problem domain.

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• A project report. The report should be ideally structured as a research paper (see class readings for exemplars) with the following sections:
o Introduction, where you identify the problem you’re addressing, the importance of the problem, outline your contributions and explain how they would contribute both to a better academic understanding of the space and inform industry developments in this space.
o Background, where you present the survey of existing work. o Several sections describing the actual work conducted
o Conclusions
Variations on this structure are possible. Please discuss this with your
• Any additional material developed in the course of the project. This might
include: working code, detailed requirements models/specifications, case studies etc.
• Develop your project idea in close consultation with your instructor.
• You may (optionally) submit a 1-page project proposal in week 8 outlining
what you plan to do, but it is not a requirement.
• Projects must be individual.
• Final project submissions must be in the form of a single PDF file. If some of
your project deliverables will be in a form that cannot be encapsulated as a
PDF file, you must notify your instructor in advance.
• Mining requirements from data: How can we leverage readily available data (often logged in the context of regular enterprise activities) to automatically extract requirements models?
o References: 
, , , and Dam, Data- driven requirements modeling: Some initial results with i*, Proceedings of the 10th Asia-Pacific Conference on Conceptual Modelling (APCCM), Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology (CRPIT),
Vol. 154, pages 55 – 64

• Requirements engineering for socio-technical systems: Socio-technical systems, which emphasize the synergy between humans and machines, are becoming increasingly important for the RE community. What are some of the issues that distinguish traditional RE from this new set of questions? What innovations do we need?
o References:
 https://www.csc2.ncsu.edu/faculty/mpsingh/papers/mas/RE-14-
 www.humancomputation.com
• Managing consistency in requirements specifications: How can inconsistencies in requirements specifications be detected? Once detected, how can they be resolved?
o References:
 W.N. Robinson, S. Pawlowski, Managing Requirements
Inconsistency with Development Goal Monitors, IEEE, Transactions on Software Engineering, Nov/Dec 1999. (Available from IEEExplore via UoW Library).
 S. M. Easterbrook and B. A. Nuseibeh (1996) Using ViewPoints for Inconsistency Management. Software Engineering Journal, Vol 11, No 1, Jan 1996.
 S. M. Easterbrook and M. Chechik, “A Framework for Multi- Valued Reasoning over Inconsistent Viewpoints”, Proceedings, 23rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE- 01), Toronto, Canada, May 12-19, 2001. IEEE Computer Society Press.
A. van Lamsweerde, R. Darimont, E. Letier Managing Conflicts in Goal-Driven Requirements Engineering IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Special Issue on Managing Inconsistency in Software Development, November 1998. (Available from IEEExplore via UoW Library).
• Requirements change management: How can requirements change requests be handled? How can we evaluate the trade-offs involved in incorporating a change request, as opposed to rejecting it (trade-off analysis)? What steps should we take in the event of the requirements change rendering the specification inconsistent?
o References:
 S. M. Easterbrook and B. A. Nuseibeh (1995) Managing
Inconsistencies in an Evolving Specification. Proceedings, Second IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering (RE’95), York, UK, April 1995, pp48-55.
 D. Zowghi, A. K. Ghose and P. Peppas, 1996.A framework for reasoning about requirements evolution. In Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Cairns, Australia, August, 1996. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 1114. Available through Springerlink: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p707181265j9/

 A. K. Ghose. Formal tools for managing inconsistency and change in RE. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Software Specification and Design (IWSSD 2000), San Diego, IEEE Computer Society Press, November 2000, pp. 171-182. (Available from IEEExplore via UoW Library).
• Compliance management in requirements models: There is considerable contemporary interest in building systems that comply with legislative/regulatory frameworks (these can often be represented as sets of rules). One approach to managing compliance concerns is to bring them to bear in the early phases of the software lifecycle, thus reducing the need to effect compliance-driven changes to downstream artefacts. How can requirements models be checked for compliance? How can these be modified if found to be non-compliant?
o References:
 , , and . On Compliance of business processes with business contracts Technical Report, School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland. 2006.
 and . Auditing business process compliance. In Proc. Of the 2007 International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing (ICSOC-2007). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Draft version available online at: www.uow.edu.au/~aditya/publications.html)
• Semantic annotation of requirements models: Many requirements modeling notations are semi-formal, providing minimal semantic information. Advanced tool support for many requirements analysis tasks such as consistency and completeness checking becomes possible if requirements models can be annotated with additional semantic information. For instance, a UML activity diagram might be annotated describe the effects of each process step. Semantic annotation of a UML sequence diagram can reveal the impact of each message. How can requirements models be augmented with semantic annotation? What form would this annotation take? What are the downstream benefits of such annotation?
o References:
 Model Checking Early Requirements Specifications in Tropos.
, , , and . In IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, 2001.[pdf]
 G. Koliadis and A. Ghose. Semantic verification of inter- operational business process models. In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Services Congress. IEEE Computer Society Press. (Available from IEEExplore via UoW Library).
• Evaluating completeness in requirements models: The problem of deciding whether a given set of models is complete relative to the needs of the task at hand is difficult and has received relatively little attention in the literature. A theoretically grounded understanding of how to detect incompleteness in a set of models (relative to a given task), and how to minimally augment the set of models to obtain completeness can be of great value.
o References

 Rolland, C. Souveyet, C. Achour, C.B. 1998. Guiding goal modeling using scenarios. In IEEE Trans. On Software Engg., vol. 24, no. 12. (Available from IEEExplore via UoW Library).
 Heimdahl, M & Leveson, N. 1996. Leveson. Completeness and Consistency in Hierarchical State-Based Requirements. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE-22, No. 6, pp. 363—377. (Available from IEEExplore via UoW Library).
• Modeling non-functional requirements: While many notations support the modeling of functional requirements, very few provide support for non- functional requirements. Non-functional requirements tend to be vague, and in many cases, qualitative, making the evaluation of whether they have been “satisfied” difficult. How can novel ways of modeling non-functional requirements be devised, leading to new stand-alone modeling notations or augmentations to existing notations?
o References:
 J.Mylopoulos, L. Chung, and B. Nixon, “Representing and
Using Non-Functional Requirements: A process-Oriented Approach”;, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Special Issue on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Software Development, 18(6), June 1992, pp. 483-497.
 L. Chung, B. A. Nixon, E. Yu and J. Mylopoulos, Non- Functional Requirements in Software Engineering, Kluwer Academic Publishing, 2000. 472pp. ISBN 0-7923-8666-3. Some earlier drafts (at ’s webpage). (Available at UoW Library)
• Novel applications of any of the formal methods discussed in class, including temporal logics, model checking, , formal goal modelling and reasoning and so on.
• Other topics within the ambit of the material discussed in this subject are also valid, but make sure you have discussed your choice of topic with the instructor.
USEFUL ACADEMIC RESOURCES (These are not exhaustive lists) Journals:
 ACM Trans. On Software Engg. and Methodology (ACM TOSEM)  IEEE Trans. On Software Engg.
 The Requirements Engineering Journal
 Data and Knowledge Engineering
 The Int’l Conf. on Requirements Engg. (RE)
 The Int’l Conf. on Software Engg (ICSE)
 The Int’l Conf. on Conceptual Modelling (ER)
 The Int’l Conf. on Advanced Information Systems Engg. (CAISE)

• Correctness (15 marks): Is the substance of your project report technically correct?
• Innovation (15 marks): Have you generated new ideas in your project? Will these ideas have an impact on industry practice or in improving our academic understanding of the problem you have addressed?
• Comprehensiveness/effort (10 marks): Have you comprehensively covered the problem space you considered? How much effort did you put into the project?

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