Simulated Annealing — Part 2

Image from: http://www.turingfinance.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Annealing.jpg

Simulated Annealing

Copyright By cscodehelp代写 加微信 cscodehelp

Simulated Annealing (assuming maximisation)

1. current_solution = generate initial solution randomly

2. Repeat:

2.1 rand_neighbour = generate random neighbour of current_solution 2.2 If quality(rand_neighbour) <= quality(current_solution) {
2.2.1 With some probability,
current_solution = rand_neighbour } Else current_solution = rand_neighbour
2.3 Reduce probability
Until a maximum number of iterations
Metallurgy Annealing
A blacksmith heats the metal to
a very high temperature.
When heated, the steel’s atoms
can move fast and randomly.
Image from: http://www.stormthecastle.com/indeximages/sting-steel-thumb.jpg
Image from: http://www.stormthecastle.com/indeximages/sting-steel-thumb.jpg
Image from: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/--kOlrodykkg/UbfVZ0_l5HI/AAAAAAAAAJ4/0rQ98g6tDDA/s1600/annealingAtoms.png
than the untreated steel.
The blacksmith then lets it cool
down slowly.
If cooled down at the right speed,
the atoms will settle in nicely.
This makes the sword stronger
Probability Function
Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality, inspired by thermodynamics:
ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) - quality(current_solution)
e = 2.71828...
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature (>0)

Exponential Function

(<=0) eΔΕ/Τ
Image form: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/Exp.svg/800px-Exp.svg.png
Exponential Function
Image form: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/Exp.svg/800px-Exp.svg.png
Exponential Function
But never reaches zero
Image form: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c6/Exp.svg/800px-Exp.svg.png
How Does ΔΕ Affect the Probability?
Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality: eΔΕ/Τ
ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) - quality(current_solution) (<=0)
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature (>0)

The worse the neighbour is in comparison to the current solution, the less likely to accept it.

How Does ΔΕ Affect the Probability?

Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality:

ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) – quality(current_solution)

But never reaches zero

Assuming maximisation…

T = temperature (>0)

We always have some probability to accept a bad neighbour, no matter how bad it is.

How Does ΔΕ Affect the Probability?

Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality: eΔΕ/Τ

ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) – quality(current_solution) (<=0)
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature (>0)

The better the neighbour is, the more likely to accept it.

How Should the Probability be Set?

We don’t want to be dislodged from the optimum.

High probability in the beginning.

More similar effect to random search. Allows us to explore the search space.

Lower probability as time goes by.

More similar effect to hill-climbing. Allows us to exploit a hill.

Probability to accept solutions with much worse quality

should be lower.

Image from: http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/13/130470/2931473-151295.jpg

How Does T Affect the Probability?

Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality: <=0
ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) - quality(current_solution)
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature
How Does T Affect the Probability?
Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality:
-10-9 -8 -7 -6 -5
ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) - quality(current_solution) (<=0)
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature (>0)

If T is higher, the probability of accepting the neighbour is higher.

How Does T Affect the Probability?

Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality:

ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) – quality(current_solution) (<=0)
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature (>0)

If T is lower, the probability of accepting the neighbour is lower.

How Does T Affect the Probability?

Probability of accepting a solution of equal or worse quality:

ΔΕ = quality(rand_neighbour) – quality(current_solution) (<=0)
Assuming maximisation...
T = temperature (>0)

So, reducing the temperature over time would reduce the probability of accepting the neighbour.

How Should the Temperature be Set?

High probability in the beginning.

More similar effect to random search.

Allows us to explore the search space.

T should start high.

Lower probability as time goes

More similar effect to hill- Allows us to exploit a hill.

T should reduce slowly over time.

Image from: http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/13/130470/2931473-151295.jpg

How to Set and Reduce T?

There are different update rules (schedules)…

Update rule:

T starts with an initially high pre-defined value (parameter of

the algorithm).

e.g., α = 0.95

α is close to, but smaller than, 1

Simulated Annealing

Simulated Annealing (assuming maximisation)

Input: initial temperature Ti

1. current_solution = generate initial solution randomly

3. Repeat:

3.1 rand_neighbour = generate random neighbour of current_solution 3.2 If quality(rand_neighbour) <= quality(current_solution) {
3.2.1 With probability eΔΕ/Τ,
current_solution = rand_neighbour } Else current_solution = rand_neighbour
3.3 T = schedule(T)
Until a maximum number of iterations
Simulated Annealing
Simulated Annealing (assuming maximisation)
Input: initial temperature Ti, minimum temperature Tf
1. current_solution = generate initial solution randomly 2. T = Ti
3. Repeat:
3.1 rand_neighbour = generate random neighbour of current_solution 3.2 If quality(rand_neighbour) <= quality(current_solution) {
3.2.1 With probability eΔΕ/Τ,
current_solution = rand_neighbour } Else current_solution = rand_neighbour
3.3 T = schedule(T)
until a minimum temperature Tf is reached or until the current solution “stops changing”
Local Search
Simulated annealing can also be considered as a local
search, as it allows to move only to neighbour solutions.
However, it has mechanisms to try to escape from local
Image from: http://static.comicvine.com/uploads/original/13/130470/2931473-151295.jpg
Optimality
Is simulated annealing guaranteed to find the optimum?
Simulated annealing is not guaranteed to find the optimum in a Whether or not it will find the optimum depends on the termination
reasonable amount of time.
criteria and the schedule.
If we leave simulated annealing to run indefinitely, it is guaranteed
to find an optimal solution, depending on the schedule used.
However the time required for that can be prohibitive — even more
than the time to enumerate all possible solutions using brute force.
Therefore, the advantage of simulated annealing is that it can frequently obtain good (near optimal) solutions, by escaping from several poor local optima in a reasonable amount of time.
Time and Space Complexity
Time complexity:
It is possible to compute the time complexity to reach the optimal solution, but it varies depending on the problem and may be even worse than the brute force time complexity, as mentioned in the previous slide.
Space complexity:
We will run more or less iterations depending on the
schedule and minimum temperature / termination criterion.
Depends on how the design variable is represented in the
algorithm.
The probability of accepting neighbouring solutions of equal or
worse quality than the current solution is inspired by metallurgy annealing.
A “temperature” is used to control how low the probability is.
A schedule is used to reduce the “temperature” over time.
The worse a neighbour is, the lower the chances of accepting it.
Next Dealing with constraints.
程序代写 CS代考 加微信: cscodehelp QQ: 2235208643 Email: kyit630461@163.com