CS代考 CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ] – cscodehelp代写

Process Management
Process Abstraction in Unix
Lecture 2b – Unix Case study

◼ Process in Unix ❑ Identification
❑ Information
❑ Creation
❑ Termination
❑ Parent-Child Synchronization
◼ Process states in Unix
◼ Implementation Issues [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Process Abstraction in Unix
• PID: Process ID (an integer value)
• Process State:
• Running, Sleeping, Stopped, Zombie
• Parent PID:
• PID of the parent process
• Cumulative CPU time:
• Total amount of CPU time used so far
◼ Unix Command for process information:
❑ ps (short for process status) [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Process Creation in Unix: fork() ◼ The main way to create a new process
int fork( );
❑ Returns:
◼ PID of the newly created process (for parent process) OR ◼ 0 (for child process)
◼ Header files are system dependent
❑ “man fork” to locate the right files for your system!
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Header File

Process Creation in Unix: fork( ) (cont)
◼ Behavior:
❑ Creates a new process (known as child process)
❑ Child process is a duplicate of the current executable image
◼ i.e., same code, same address space, etc.
◼ Memory in child is a COPY of the parent (i.e., not shared) ❑ Implemented using copy-on-write
❑ Child differs only in:
◼ Process id (PID)
◼ Parent (PPID )
❑ Parent = The process which executed the fork()
◼ fork() return value [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

fork() : Example
#include #include #include
int main() {
printf(“I am ONE
printf(“I am seeing DOUBLE
return 0; }
◼ Question:
❑ What do you think is the output?
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

fork( ): Example Explained
◼ Both parent and child processes continue executing after
◼ A common usage is to use the parent/child process differently
❑ For example:
◼ The parent spawn off a child to carry out some work ◼ And then the parent is ready to take another task
❑ Use the return value of fork( ) to distinguish parent and child
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

fork( ): Parent and Child Example
int result;
result = fork();
if (result != 0){
printf(“P:My Id is %i
printf(“P:Child Id is %i
”,result); } else {
printf(“C:My Id is %i
”, getpid() );
printf(“C:Parent Id is %i
”, getppid() );
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Parent Process
Child Process

fork(): Independent Memory Space
int var = 1234;
int result;
result = fork();
if (result != 0){
printf(“Parent: Var is %i
”, var); var++;
printf(“Parent: Var is %i
”, var);
printf(“Child: Var is %i
”, var);
printf(“Child: Var is %i
”, var);
◼ Question:
❑ Is there ONE or TWO var variable? [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Executing A /Image
◼ fork() itself is not useful:
❑ You still need to provide the full code for the child process
❑ What if we want to execute another existing program instead? ◼ Make use of the exec( ) system calls family
❑ Many variants:
◼ execv, execl, execle, execlv, execlp, etc.
❑ Will touch on: ◼ execl
❑ Others are similar (“man XXX” to find out more)
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Sidetrack: Command Line Argument in C
◼ You can pass arguments to a program in C ❑ e.g. a.exe 1 2 3 hello
int main( int argc, char* argv[] ) {
//use argc and argv
❑ Number of command line arguments
❑ Including the program name itself ◼ argv:
❑ A char strings array
❑ Each element in argv[] is a C character string [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

C Command Line Argument: Example
int main( int argc, char* argv[] ) { inti;
for (i = 0; i < argc; i++){ printf("Arg %i: %s ",i, argv[i] ); return 0; } ◼ Example Run: a.out 123 hello world Arg 0: a.out Arg 1: 123 Arg 2: hello Arg 3: world [ CS2106 L2b - AY2122 S1 ] execl() System Call ◼ To replace current executing process image with a new one ❑ Code replacement ❑ PID and other information still intact #include
int execl( const char *path, const char *arg0,
const char *argN, NULL );
❑ path: Location of the executable
❑ arg0, …, argN: Command Line Argument(s) ❑ NULL: To indicate end of argument list
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Header File

execl(): Simple Example
int main() {
execl( “/bin/ls”, “ls”, “-al”, NULL); }
❑ Path = “/bin/ls”
◼ The “dir” command in unix, to list the files in directory
❑ arg0 = “ls”
◼ The program name
❑ arg1 = “-al”
◼ The above is exactly the same as executing: ls -al
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Hmm… fork() + exec() ?
◼ By combining the two mechanisms, we can:
❑ Spawn off a child process
◼ Let the child process perform a task through exec()
❑ Meanwhile, the parent process is still around ◼ To accept another request
◼ This combination of mechanisms is the main way in Unix: ❑ To get a new process for running a new program
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

The Master Process
◼ Question:
❑ If every process has parent, then which process is the “commonest
◼ Special initial process:
❑ init process
❑ Created in kernel at boot up time
❑ Traditionally has a PID = 1
❑ Watches for other processes and respawns where needed
◼ fork() creates process tree: ❑ init is the root process
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Process Tree Example (simplified)
inetd login klogd
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Note: just a simple example, actual process tree varies according to Unix setup

Process Termination in Unix
◼ To end execution of process:
void exit( int status );
❑ Status is returned to the parent process (more later) ❑ Unix Convention:
◼ 0 = Normal Termination (successful execution)
◼ !0 = To indicate problematic execution ❑ The function does not return!
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Header File

Process On Exit
◼ Process finished execution
❑ Most system resources used by process are released on exit
◼ E.g. File descriptors
❑ Each opened file in C has a file descriptor attach to it
❑ Similar to File object in Java, File Stream Object in C++
❑ Some basic process resources not releasable:
◼ PID & status needed
❑ For parent-children synchronization
◼ Process accounting info, e.g., cpu time
➔ Process table entry may be still needed [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Implicit exit()
◼ Most programs have no explicit exit() call
◼ Example:
int main() {
printf(“Just to say goodbye!
”); }
◼ Return from main() implicitly calls exit() ❑ Open files also get flushed automatically!
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Parent/Child Synchronization in Unix
◼ Parent process can wait for child process to terminates
int wait( int *status );
❑ Returns the PID of the terminated child process ❑ status (passed by address):
◼ Stores the exit status of the terminated child process ◼ Use NULL if you do not need/want this info
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Header File

Parent/Child Synchronization in Unix
◼ Behavior:
❑ The call is blocking:
◼ Parent process blocks until at least one child terminates
❑ The call cleans up remainder of child system resources ◼ Those not removed on exit()
◼ Kill zombie process☺
◼ Other variants of wait() :
❑ waitpid()
◼ Wait for a specific child process
❑ waitid()
◼ Wait for any child process to change status
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Process Interaction in Unix
exec/ fork
Parent Process
Parent Process
process entry cleaned up
Child execl Child exit Process Process
Zombie Process
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
Note: example uses one ordering of execution, others are possible!

wait() “creates” zombies!!
◼ On process exit: (see previous slide) ❑ most of the resources are released
❑ becomes zombie
❑ Cannot delete all process info
◼ What if parent asks for the info in a wait() call?
◼ Can be cleaned up only when wait() happens
❑ Cannot kill zombie
◼ The process is already dead!
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Zombie Process and Orphan Process
Orphan: parent process terminates before child process:
❑ init process becomes “pseudo” parent of child processes
❑ Child termination sends signal to init, which utilizes wait() to cleanup
Zombie: Child process terminates before parent but parent did not call wait:
❑ Child process become a zombie process ❑ Can fill up process table
◼ May need a reboot to clear the table on older Unix implementations [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Summary of Unix Process System calls
❑ Process creation
exec() family:
❑ Change executing image/program
❑ execl, execv, execve, execle, execvp
❑ Process termination wait() family:
❑ Get exit status, synchronize with child ❑ wait, waitpid, waitid, etc
❑ getpid, getppid, etc [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]
() family:
❑ Get process information

Process State Diagram in Unix
STOP signal
resource ready
context switch
exit() Running
waiting for resource, eg. I/O
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Implementing fork() ◼ Behavioroffork():
❑ Makes an almost exact copy of parent process ◼ Simplified implementation:
1. Create address space of child process
2. Allocate p’ = new PID
3. Create kernel process data structures ◼ E.g.EntryinProcessTable
4. Copy kernel environment of parent process ◼ E.g.,Priority(forprocessscheduling)
5. Initialize child process context:
◼ PID= p’, PPID=parent id, zero CPU time
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Implementing fork() (cont)
6. Copy memory regions from parent
◼ Program, Data, Stack
◼ Very expensive operation that can be optimized (more later)
7. Acquires shared resources:
◼ Open files, current working directory, etc.
8. Initialize hardware context for child process: ◼ Copy registers, etc., from parent process
9. Child process is now ready to run ◼ add to scheduler queue
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Memory Copy Operation
◼ Memory copy is very expensive:
❑ Potentially need to copy the whole memory space
◼ Observations:
❑ The child process will not access the whole memory range right
❑ Additionally:
◼ If child just read from a location: ❑ Remain unchanged
❑ Canuseasharedversion
◼ Only when write is perform on a location: ❑ Thentwoindependentcopiesareneeded
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Memory Copy Optimization
◼ Copy on Write is a possible optimization for memory copy operation:
❑ Only duplicate a “memory location” when it is written to
❑ Otherwise parent and child share the same “memory location”
◼ Note that, actually:
❑ Memory is organized into memory pages
◼ A consecutive range of memory locations ❑ Memory is managed on a page level
◼ Instead of individual location
❑ Will be covered in details in Memory Management part of
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Modern Take on fork()
◼ fork() system call is part of the Unix design
❑ inherited by most (all?) variants
◼ However, it is not versatile:
❑ A thorough duplication of the parent process
◼ There are scenarios where a partial duplication may be
❑ e.g. parent and child shares some of the memory regions, or some other resources
◼ Linux provides clone() which supersedes fork() [ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

◼ Covered most of the process operations available in Unix: ❑ Creation through fork()
❑ Change execution through exec()
❑ Termination through exit()
❑ Synchronization (Parent → Child) through wait()
◼ Process States
❑ Process state diagram
◼ Implementation issues with fork()
[ CS2106 L2b – AY2122 S1 ]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *