# CS代考 FIT5202 Data processing for big data – cscodehelp代写

FIT5202 Data processing for big data
Question 1
Aditya and David are the first-year data science students with Monash University. They are discussing how parallel and distributed processing can help data scientists perform the computation faster. They would like your help to understand and get answers to the following questions:
1. Using the current processing resources, we can finish processing 1TB (one terabyte) of data in 1 hour. Recently the volume of data has increased to 2TB and the management has decided to double up the processing resources. Using the new processing resources, we can finish processing the 2TB in 60 minutes. Aditya wants to know​ (1 + 1 = 2 Marks)
b. Also, please explain what type of speed-up or scale-up is it (​linear, superlinear or
sub-linear​)?
It is a scale-up. It is data scale up (not transaction scale-up). Scale-up is not about speeding up a job. Scale-up is about maintaining the same performance when the workload is increased by increasing the processing resources, proportionally.
(1 mark for scale-up)
It is a linear scale-up. Using x resources (current resources), 1TB queries = 60 minutes When the resources are doubled (e.g. x becomes 2x now), a linear scale up is being able to complete 2TB in 60 minutes.
In the question, using 2x resources, it finishes 2TB in 60 minutes. Therefore, it is linear scale up.
(1 mark, including the reason)
2. David is using his iMac desktop to do parallel query processing. The iMac has the following specifications:
He wants to know what type of parallel database architecture is he using to do the parallel query processing. Please explain the reason for your answer. ​(2 Marks)
It is a Shared-Memory Architecture. (1 mark)

The memory is shared among all cores within a single computer (4 cores per iMac). There is no interconnection network involved. (1 mark)
3. David read in the textbook that “Random unequal partitioning is sometimes inevitable in parallel search.” However, he could not understand why? Please give two reasons why random unequal partitioning is sometimes inevitable in parallel search.​ (1 + 1 = 2 Marks)
– If the initial data placement is based on a particular attribute (say attribute x), whereas the parallel search is based on a different attribute (say attribute y), then all processors must be used, and the data is random unequal in all processors.
– Even if the initial data placement is equal (random equal or round-robin), if the search is part of a large query which has some initial operations, such as join, then the parallel search which follows the previous operations, will have the data distributed unequally to all processors. Hence, it is random and unequal.
4. Aditya now understands that skewness is the unevenness of workload and skewed workload distribution is generally undesirable. He found the figure below in the textbook that shows the skewed workload distribution. He wants to know ​(1 + 1 = 2 Marks)
a. Is the figure below ​processing skew​ or ​data skew​? Please explain with reason.
b. Is it possible to have an equal distribution of data? Please explain how.
It is a data skew. Data skew is uneven distribution of data in terms of size or number of records.
(1 Mark for the correct choice and explanation; 0 Mark for incorrect answer.)
Yes, it is possible to have equal distribution of data using random-equal data partitioning method. ​(1 Mark)
5. David was given a task to perform log analysis in the lab. The input data consisted of log messages of varying degrees of severity, along with some blank lines. He has to compute

how many log messages appear at each level of severity. The contents of the “input.txt” file are shown below.
INFO This is a message with content INFO This is some other content (empty line)
INFO Here are more messages WARN This is a warning
(empty line)
ERROR Something bad happened WARN More details on the bad thing INFO back to normal messages
The expected output of the operations is as below.
[(‘INFO’, 4), (‘WARN’, 2), (‘ERROR’, 1)]
However, he is not sure how to begin. Please explain to him assuming ‘sc’ as a SparkContext object. ​(1 + 1 = 2 Marks)
a. What is an RDD?
b. How can it be created in this case to perform a log analysis of “input.txt” file?
Resilient Distributed Datasets (RDD) is a fundamental data structure of Spark. It is an immutable distributed collection of objects. Each dataset in RDD is divided into logical partitions, which may be computed on different nodes of the cluster. (1 Mark)
It can be created using sc.textFile() method e.g. sc.textFile(“input.txt”)(1 Mark)
Question 2
Petadata is an ​enterprise software​ company that develops and sells database analytics software subscriptions. The company provides three main services: business analytics, cloud products, and consulting. It operates in North and Latin America, Europe, and Australia.
Petadata is headquartered in Melbourne​, ​Victoria, and has additional major Australian locations in Sydney and Adelaide, where its data center research and development is housed. has served as the company’s president and chief executive officer since 2014. The company reported \$2.8 billion in revenue, with a net income of \$112 million, and 15,026 employees globally, as of March 15, 2020.
Chin is a recent graduate from Monash University and preparing for the job interview in Petadata. He needs your help to understand aspects of parallel processing especially parallel joins in shared-nothing architecture.

1. Using a more general notation, table R has |R| number of records, and table S has |S| number of records. The first step of ROJA is to redistribute the records from both tables according to hash/range partitioning. What is the ​cost model​ of the ​Redistribution Step​ of ROJA​? ​(4 marks)
Symbol Description
Data Parameters
R Size of table in bytes
R​i Size of table fragment in bytes on processor i |R| Number of records in table R
|R​i|​ Number of records in table R on processor i
Systems Parameters
N Number of processors P Page size
Time Unit Cost
IO Effective time to read a page from disk
t​r Time to read a record in the main memory t​w Time to write a record to the main memory t​d Time to compute destination
Communication Cost
m​p Message protocol cost per page m​l Message latency for one page
Scan cost for loading tables R and S from local disk in each processor is: ((Ri / P) + (Si / P)) IO
Select cost for getting the record out of data page is: (|Ri| + |Si|) (tr + tw) Finding destination cost is: (|Ri| + |Si|) (td)
Data transfer cost is: ((Ri / P) + (Si / P)) (mp + ml)
Receiving records cost is: ((Ri / P) + (Si / P)) (mp)
Both data transfer and receiving costs look similar, as also mentioned previously in the divide and broadcast cost. However, for disjoint partitioning, the size of Ri and Si in the data transfer cost is likely to be different from that of the receiving cost. The reason is as follows. Ri and Si in the data transfer cost are the size of each fragment of both tables in each processor. Again, assuming that the initial data placement is done using a round-robin or any other equal partitioning, each fragment size will be equal. Therefore, Ri and Si in the data transfer cost are simply dividing the total table size by the available number of processors.

However, Ri and Si in the receiving cost are most likely skewed. Consequently, the values of Ri and Si in the receiving cost are different from those of the data transfer cost.
Disk cost for storing the result of data distribution is: ((Ri/P)+(Si/P)) IO
2. Chin found the code below in ​stackunderflow.com​ that counts the errors and warnings in the text file using Apache Spark.
from pyspark import SparkContext
blank_lines = 0 # global variable
def extract_blank_lines(line): if line == “”:
blank_lines += 1 return line.split(” “)
print(“Blank lines: %d” %blank_lines)
However, the code produces the error shown below.
Caused by: org.apache.spark.api.python.PythonException: Traceback (most recent call last):
File “/home/…/.local/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pyspark/python/lib/pyspark.zip /pyspark/util.py”, line 107, in wrapper
return f(*args, **kwargs)
File ““, line 6, in extract_blank_lines
UnboundLocalError: local variable ‘blank_lines’ referenced before assignment
… 1 more
a. Why does the code above generate errors? ​(1 Marks)
b. How can you fix the error? Please explain and write the fixed code below. ​(3 Marks)

blank_lines variable is a global variable to driver but is not accessible by the executors, because of which the flatMap operation in each executor produces the error UnboundLocalError: local variable ‘blank_lines’ referenced before assignment
This error can be fixed using accumulators. Accumulators provides a simple syntax for aggregating values from worker nodes back to the driver program. They are only “added” to through an associative and commutative operation and can therefore be efficiently supported in parallel.
blank_lines = sc.accumulator(0) # Create Accumulator[int] intitialized to 0
def extract_blank_lines(line):
​ global blank_lines # make the global variable accessible if line == “”:
print(type(line))
blank_lines += 1 return line.split(” “)
print(“Blank lines: %d” %blank_lines.value)
3. Finally, Chin wants to know, if we have two tables (let’s say Table R and Table S) and we want to perform an Outer Join query, if we use OJSO algorithm to process this outer join query, OJSO algorithm will be the same as ROJA algorithm. Is this statement correct? Please explain why. ​(2 Marks)
OJSO is a load balancing algorithm for outer join. Load imbalance addressed by OJSO is applicable if there are more than 2 tables to be join (e.g. R join S join T), because after joining the first two tables, there will be load imbalance problem, and OJSO will solve this load imbalance problem with joining with the third table.
In this question, there are only 2 tables (R and S), hence OJSO is the same as ROJA, because OJSO is based on ROJA.
Question 3
Tooba is a sessional lecturer and data scientist in Monash University and loves to bake cookies with M&Ms in them. She rewards her students in the university where she frequently teaches machine learning and data science courses with batches of those cookies. But she’s data-driven and wants to ensure that she gets the right colours of M&Ms in the cookies for students from different states in Australia.

1. She has a computer with four processors. But she is planning to use only three processors to avoid resource contention. Given a data set D = {55; 30; 68; 39; 1; 4; 49; 90; 34; 76; 82; 56; 31; 25; 78; 56; 38; 32; 88; 9; 44; 98; 11; 70; 66; 89; 99; 22; 23; 26} and three processors, show step-by-step how the Parallel Redistribution Merge-All Sort works. ​(3 Marks)
Assume random equal partitioning has been applied, where each processor has 10 records. The first processor will get the first 10 records, etc.
Processor 1 = {55; 30; 68; 39; 1; 4; 49; 90; 34; 76} Processor 2= {82; 56; 31; 25; 78; 56; 38; 32; 88; 9} Processor 3 = {44; 98; 11; 70; 66; 89; 99; 22; 23; 26}
Parallel Redistribution Merge-All Sort
Step 1: Local Sort
Processor 1 = {1; 4; 30; 34; 39; 49; 55; 68; 76; 90} Processor 2= {9; 25; 31; 32; 38; 56; 56; 78; 82; 88} Processor 3 = {11; 22; 23; 26; 44; 66; 70; 89; 98; 99}
Step 2: Redistribution
Assume Processor 1=1-33, Processor 2=34-66; Processor 3=67-99 Processor 1 =
{1; 4; 30}
{9; 25; 31; 32}
{11; 22; 23; 26}
Results = {1; 4; 9; 11; 22; 23; 25; 26; 30; 31; 32}
Processor 2= {34; 39; 49; 55} {38; 56; 56}

Results = {34; 38; 39; 44; 49; 55; 56; 56; 66}
Processor 3 =
{68; 76; 90}
{78; 82; 88}
{70; 89; 98; 99}
Results = {68; 70; 76; 78; 82; 88; 89; 90; 98; 99}
2. She was thinking of using internal sorting to perform the sort. However, she read on the internet that “​External Sorting is different from ​Internal Sorting​. Therefore, external sorting cannot use any of the Internal sorting methods”. Is this statement True or False? Explain the reason as well. ​(2 Marks)
The statement is False.
External sorting method is used when the entire dataset to be sorted cannot fit into the main memory. Internal sorting method is a sorting method when the entire dataset to be sorted can fit into main memory.
The way external sorting works is by dividing the dataset into a smaller dataset so that each smaller dataset can fit into the main memory and these smaller datasets are sorted using an Internal Sorting method.
So, External sorting method uses Internal sorting.
3. Upon further reading, Tooba found that there are two types of skewness: data skew and processing skew, that can hinder the efficient performance of parallel sorting.
a. Explain what is ​data skew​ and​ processing skew​. ​(2 Marks)
b. Considering data skew and processing skew, when should we use Parallel
Redistribution Merge-All Sort, and when should we use Parallel Partitioned Sort? Also, explain why. ​(3 Marks)
Data skew is caused by the unevenness of data placement in a disk in each local processor, or by the previous operator. Unevenness of data placement is caused by the fact that data value distribution, which is used in the data partitioning function, may well be non-uniform due to the nature of data value distribution. If initial data placement is based on a round-robin data partitioning function, data skew will not occur. However, it is common for database processing to not involve a single operation only. It sometimes involves many operations, such as selection first, projection second, join third, and sort last. In this case, although initial data placement is even, other operators may have rearranged the data – some data are eliminated, or joined, and consequently, data skew may occur when the sorting is about to start.

Processing skew is caused by the processing itself, and may be propagated by the data skew initially. For example, a parallel external sorting processing consists of several stages. Somewhere along the process, the workload of each processing element may not be balanced, and this is called processing skew. Notice that even when data skew may not exist at the start of the processing, skew may exist at a later stage of processing. If data skew exists in the first place, it is very likely that processing skew will also occur.
If the processing skew degree is high, then use Parallel Redistribution Merge-All Sort. If both data skew and processing skew degrees are high OR no skew, then use Parallel Partitioned Sort.
When there is a high processing skew degree, parallel partitioned sort performs poorly. Why? One reason is that the skew occurs in the second phase of processing, that is in the sorting phase of parallel partitioned sort, and in the final merging of parallel redistribution merge-all sort. The second phase of parallel partitioned sort is similar to the first phase of parallel redistribution merge-all sort. With processing skew exists, the second phase of parallel partitioned sort now becomes so expensive, whereas the first phase of parallel redistribution merge-all sort remains the same, since no processing skew is involved in the first phase of processing. This results in an extreme overhead to parallel partitioned sort, and this is why the performance of parallel partitioned sort is degraded.
When both data and processing skews exist, the performance of parallel partitioned sort is now slightly better than parallel redistribution merge-all sort. The main reason is that data skew now affects the first phase of parallel redistribution merge-all sort (i.e. local sorting phase) very badly. On the other hand, data skew effect in the first phase of parallel partitioned sort (i.e. scanning phase) is not as bad, since the scanning phase, only a few operations are involved, particularly disk loading, reading, and partitioning. The first phase of parallel redistribution merge-all sort involves many more operations and they are all affected by data skew.
Parallel partitioned sort outperforms parallel redistribution merge-all sort when no skew is involved. However, it is unreasonable to assume that in the parallel partitioned sort, where the first phase is a redistribution phase does not involve any data skew.
Conclusion: parallel partitioned sort is suitable for only when no skew or both skew are involved. When processing skew exists without data skew, parallel partitioned sort does not perform as well as parallel redistribution merge-all sort.
Question 4
2020 has been the year of Big Data – the year when big data and analytics made tremendous progress through innovative technologies, data-driven decision making and outcome-centric analytics. You are applying for the job as a Data Scientist. Mohammad is a senior lecturer and data scientist at Monash University, and a good friend of yours. He has prepared a list of questions regarding Apache Spark and Machine Learning to help you prepare for the job interview. Please answer the following questions.
1. In Apache Spark, machine learning pipelines provide a uniform set of high-level APIs built on top of DataFrames. It makes it easier to combine multiple algorithms into a single

pipeline, or workflow. The key concepts introduced by the Pipelines API are DataFrame, Transformer, Estimator, Pipeline, and Parameter.
a. What is Machine Learning and why should you use machine learning with Spark?​ (2 Marks)
b. What is a Transformer and an Estimator?​ (​2 Marks)